BASI Pilates is proud to give the entire Pilates community access to these invaluable papers on a variety of Pilates-centric issues written by BASI Pilates students.
These are student papers, which are submitted to BASI Pilates by the writers as a requirement for completion of the BASI Pilates Comprehensive Teacher Training Course. The contents are not endorsed by BASI Pilates. The papers are being provided by the writers and BASI Pilates as a service to the Pilates community.
Copyright © 2013 BASI Pilates. All rights reserved. These papers or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of BASI Pilates, except for the use of brief quotations with the appropriate attribution.
Many of us will experience pelvic floor problems during our life, such as incontinence, prolapse or pelvic pain. Women are more affected, with one in two women experiencing some symptoms in their lifetime. Pelvic floor dysfunction can have serious impacts on quality of life, through uncomfortable or painful symptoms and also through limiting the physical activity sufferers can safely perform. Many common forms of exercise are unsafe for those with pelvic floor dysfunction. Pilates, with its awareness of the role of pelvic floor in movement, has the potential to benefit these people, complementing pelvic floor rehabilitation/management, and providing a safe outlet for movement. However, care must be taken to tailor suitable programs and work with clients to prevent inadvertent worsening of their symptoms. This paper explores guidelines for working with people at risk of or currently experiencing pelvic floor problems to help the instructor determine which exercises should be excluded, and how to modify or employ assists to avoid placing excessive strain on the pelvic floor. The paper details a case study of a new mother with mild pelvic organ prolapse and provides an example program for this intermediate-level client. It concludes that when instructed and practised with precaution, Pilates has the capacity to be an ideal form of movement for people living with pelvic floor dysfunction.
Lymphedema is a condition in which fluid, also known as lymph, is retained by the lymph nodes and causes swelling (edema), often in the arms or legs, and sometimes in the neck, face and abdominal areas. The swelling occurs when a blockage in the lymphatic system prevents the fluid from draining properly or adequately. The condition has a definite negative effect on fitness. Those suffering from the condition may benefit from managed exercise in connection with lymph drainage therapy. This paper discusses lymphedema’s effects on the body and suggests a Pilates exercise regiment based on the BASI Block System for people suffering from or at risk of developing lymphedema. It concludes with a case study of a lymphedema sufferer and a Pilates program designed for her.
생활환경의 사무화, 자동화는 신체활동의 감소 및 운동부족을 초래하여 현대인들을 각종 질환의 위험에 노출시키고 있다. 요통은 많은 사람이 경험하는 증상으로 약 60-80%의 사람들이 일생을 통해서 한번쯤은 요통으로 고통을 받은 적이 있는 흔한 질환이다. 요통에 대해서 공부하고 운동 접근방법을 통해 얻은 효과를 알아보고자한다.
2014 년 1월부터방송국 PD 로일하는남성회원의필라테스운동참여로 인하여척추협착증과자세교정대한사례이다.
이남성분은헬스개인레슨을거의 1년동안꾸준히해왔으며 TRX 라는운동30회레슨 ,주3회정도꾸준히건강을챙겨왔다.
하지만필라테스스튜디오에방문했을경우는이미척추협착의진행으로인해병원에서는수술을권한상태였고오버트레이닝으로인하여 Kypho-lordosis가 확연히보일정도로두드러졌으며어깨의슬랩까지겹쳐이두근의손상및목의통증까지호소한상태라서건드리지못할정도로예민한상태였다.
이남성분은정확한의사의진단과처방으로인하여 ROM 의범위내에서운동을시행하였으며어깨부분과목의부분에는시술에들어가한달2회주사를맞았다.
그결과, 주2회꾸준히프로그램에참여하면서레슨 40회정도시행하였을때 시술이들어가지않아도목의통증과등의통증은사라진상태이다.
Aerialists are constantly climbing, pulling up onto the apparatus and hanging by a single arm in intricate poses. The incorrect use of the shoulder joint, or muscles and tendons surrounding the joint, can cause serious injury. Common injuries of the Gleno-humeral joint are ligament tears (labrum), dislocation, swelling and weakness due to fatigue. To achieve a stable base in the shoulder joint, one must combine stabilization and mobilization to coordinate correct shoulder mechanics. Therefore, cross training with Pilates can help rehabilitate the muscles that protect the shoulder joint and prevent these injuries from occurring. This paper will present proper stability within the shoulder joint and various exercises to gain strength in a safe and effective manner. Additionally, a conditioning program every aerialist should cross train with to prevent injury and shoulder instability will be demonstrated.
오늘날, 현대인들은잦은컴퓨터사용, 텔레비전시청혹은오랜시간의실내업무등으로앉아서많은시간을보낸다. 그래서많은사람들은 turtle neck syndrome이나 round shoulder 혹은 hyperlordosis등의잘못된자세를가지고있다. 이런현대인들의잘못된자세를교정하기위해필라테스가적용되었다. Case study에서 31살의직장여성 X가 10주동안주2회필라테스를체험하였고그결과, 자세의변형, 만성적인통증, 체력등의부분에서긍정적인효과를보았다.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s. In the United States, it is estimated that 60,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, joining the 1.5 million Americans who currently have PD. Some Parkinson’s sufferers turn to Pilates to ease their symptoms. Parkinson’s patients that take up Pilates report anecdotal evidence that Pilates helps to ease their symptoms. The BASI Pilates principles consist of slow, controlled exercises that use springs for resistance and mimics the natural movements you make in day-to-day life. Pilates allows one to increase core strength and balance, which may ease the symptoms of rigidity and poor balance that Parkinson’s sufferers experience, as well as build confidence and mind-body connection.
Sway Back Posture (SBP), o posizione di affaticamento, è caratterizzata dalla spinta del bacino in avanti e della colonna vertebrale toracica indietro rispetto al filo a piombo. Si tratta di una postura passiva che richiede pochissima energia per essere mantenuta. Essa rappresenta un fattore comune in persone con mal di schiena ed altre sindromi croniche. Nel corso del tempo, questa posizione, crea una curva di iper-lordosi della colonna cervicale, un aumento della curva cifotica dorsale e una riduzione della fisiologica lordosi lombare. Il bacino "scivola indietro" in retroversione. La correzione di tale postura è complessa , generalmente coinvolge il rafforzamento degli estensori della schiena superiore ed, in alcuni casi, dell'ileo psoas. Contemporaneamente, richiede l'allungamento della catena di flessione (hamstring, muscoli addominali, grandi e piccoli pettorali). Pilates gioca un ruolo chiave nel portare il corpo in allineamento ideale ed armonizzare la colonna vertebrale ripristinando le sue fisiologiche curve ed i naturali equilibri. Il cueing è "estendere" la parte alta della schiena e protenderla in avanti per il corretto allineamento sopra il bacino. Per raggiungere un buon allieamento e una buona meccanica il corpo deve avere a disposizione degli strumenti. I componenti chiave sono muscoli stabilizzatori (TA e Multifido) forti, ed utilizzati in modo corretto ed efficace, e flessibilità. Con il metodo Pilates si insegna ad utilizzare la muscolatura profonda (Powerhouse) ,principale responsabile della postura, al fine di determinare posizioni corrette delle parti del corpo, col conseguente allineamento e mantenimento delle curve del rachide. Di seguito verranno analizzate le caratteristiche anatomiche, i problemi della postura SB e i concetti che circondano le cause e gli effetti di questa posizione. Poi si affronterà il caso di Alessandro, la valutazione della sua postura SB , che gli porta un mal di schiena cronico e il programma rivolto a lui utilizzando il metodo BASI Pilates.
This paper is about my experience with fibromyalgia which began in 2001 when I was age 42. My symptoms were initially severe but they have now reduced to a more manageable level in great part due to Pilates. The term Fibromyalgia (FM) comes from fibro “fibrous tissues” myo “muscle” and algos “pain”. So FM is essentially a term for pain in the muscles and connective tissue. FM is a condition affecting 2-8% of the population (Clauw 2014) with women being about 8 times more susceptible than men (Bartels 2009, Hawkins 2013). There are many possible FM symptoms people can experience but in this paper I’ll be considering my own primary FM symptoms which have been burning muscular soreness, unpleasant neural sensations, joint soreness, fatigue, anxiety and depression. Though not fatal the prognosis for FM is that it’s incurable. Interventions for symptom control include psychological therapies, medications and exercise all of which I’ve tried. The most effective approach for me to date has been a mind-body approach to relaxation and exercise. The BASI Pilates system with its foundational Ten Movement Principles has been ideal for me because it encompasses this approach. This paper will look at my personal FM-related discoveries leading up to my introduction to Pilates in 2010 and specifically why and how I now use the BASI system to help reduce my symptoms.
This paper considers modifications that can be used in Pilates to benefit women who are pregnant. It includes a full conditioning program for women up to their third trimester based on the BASI Block System. It also includes an anatomical description of mothers during pregnancy and wear we want to focus our attention. Pilates instructors should be aware of contraindications such as lying supine and stretching. Because of many different hormones traveling through pregnant women, instructors must be cautious during this fragile time. Over all Pilates is very beneficial for pregnant women because it prepares them for a smooth labor, delivery, and recovery.
Pelvic floor dysfunction is one of the most common causes of pelvic pain. Yet for most, the condition goes unidentified and untreated. The condition of the pelvic floor is highly reliant on several muscle groups that work in coordination and balance to create trunk stability. For women, the stability and health of these muscle groups contribute to the optimal functioning of gynecological processes, continence and sexual intimacy. This paper will touch on aspects of pelvic floor dysfunction and the effect of the surrounding muscle groups. A specific Pilates program designed to regain and maintain pelvic floor stability and function for a woman diagnosed with pelvic floor dysfunction will be outlined.
The average person works behind a desk about forty hours a week. Now imagine working those forty hours by dancing professionally and teaching dance to young students; which entails being constantly on your feet, moving in unusual and challenging ways, for extremely long durations of time, and usually with a smile on your face. It is no surprise that mature and advanced dancers are very commonly afflicted with Fatigue Posture since it takes very little energy to uphold. Fatigue Posture is commonly characterized by the pelvis and chin pushing forward and slouching in the shoulders. With many problems occurring with Fatigue Posture, a holistic exercise program such as Pilates would be a great way to alter these postural deviations. This paper will focus on the Fatigue Posture of advanced dancers, and how a well structured BASI Pilates program can help to restore the balance of ideal posture.
Pregnancy is a miraculous time in a woman’s life and her body goes through miraculous changes. Many times these changes can be challenging both physically and mentally, but Pilates can help a woman feel more comfortable at every stage of pregnancy, improve her mental focus and mood, prepare her physically for labor, and help with post partum recovery. Pilates exercises engage the core muscles, pelvic floor, hips, and spine, which are all critical for pregnant woman’s constantly changing body. Pregnancy can also be stressful and bring new anxieties, but Pilates offers a deeper experience when the mental aspect of conditioning is included with exercises, and the woman feels better after the Pilates session than she did before.
Chronic stress and anxiety are disorders which affect over 6 million adults in a given year. Sufferers of these conditions live with feeling of constant panic and worry, often which is beyond their control. Likewise, they endure health issues such as high blood pressure, heart palpitations, headaches, and loss of sleep. While finding effective treatment depends on the individual patient, modern research has shed light on the benefit of physical activity. Exercise is considered key to both physical and mental health. Stress and anxiety are conditions which effect both the mind and body; thus making it vital to find a remedy that combats both angles. The practice of Pilates is one form of exercise which aims at obtaining balance and full potential of the mind, body, and spirit. The principles of Pilates make it an effective form of rehabilitation for people suffering from disorders such as stress and anxiety.
Data suggests there is a very high probability of experiencing chronic pain at some point during one’s lifetime. Whether due to injury, illness or another cause, chronic pain is difficult to manage and relief often proves elusive. Dysfunction in one area of the body will inevitably create a ripple effect throughout the kinetic chain. The emphasis on whole body conditioning inherent in the Pilates method can provide an effective means of improving chronic pain symptoms. Having sustained a traumatic injury to my right pelvic and hip region that resulted in chronic pain, this report considers the use of Pilates as a means of management and alleviation of my own pain symptoms. Utilizing the BASI Block System, the body is addressed as a whole, in addition to stretching, strengthening, and stabilizing the injured area, thus disrupting the succession of dysfunction along the body’s kinetic chain and preventing further compensations and/or damage.
Lower back pain is a common problem that affects many individuals through out their lifetime, especially in golfers. Pilates has been shown to decrease pain for individuals experiencing lower back pain. Amateur golfers are often guilty of being weekend warriors and focusing on golf instead of overall strengthening. This causes them to have significant weakness and decreased flexibility; which can contribute to lower back pain. The goals for golfers can be addressed by Pilates; and therefore is a good tool for decreasing lower back pain for golfers, and allow for strengthening in order to avoid pain in the future.
"Athletes are often lacking balance due to the highly repetitious nature of their particular activities. This in term could detract from optimum performance and potentially lead to injury." -p101 Study Guide. When developing a Pilates program for a male athlete, it is important to not only focus on improving flexibility but to realize that some muscles have been overworked through habitual movement patterns causing undesired imbalances. And these imbalances need to be addressed. Male athletes often experience weakness or inflexibility in the muscles that make up the pelvic floor complex. These muscles include hip flexors, hip extensors, adductors, abductors, and both the intenal and external rotators of the hip. A limited range of motion in the hips will hinder optimal sports performance, and could eventually lead to injury. In this paper, I will be specifically discussing the muscles within the pelvic floor complex.
Susan is a 36-year-old stay-at-home mom to three kids. She has been fairly active throughout her life, yet now finds herself in chronic back pain. In childhood, her spine spontaneous fractured in a single thoracic vertebrae. The frontal collapse of these vertebrae caused Susan to acquire a condition known as Kyphosis or Dowager’s hump. Kyphosis is a forward head and forward rounding of the upper back posture. This rounding is often called hunchback. Because the condition was most often occurring in older woman, the term “Dowager’s Hump” became a term for Kyphosis. The word Dowager means elderly or older woman. Kyphosis is often age-related due to weakened spinal bones. However, poor postural alignment and genetic or congenital deformities can cause the condition to present in much younger people, such as in Susan’s case. As her condition has worsened, she has incorporated Pilates into her lifestyle and this study will reveal the findings of her condition and progress. For Susan’s condition, we have developed a short term and long- term plan. Incrementally, assessing her abilities and progress to be sure we are on target.
I encountered my first running injury two years ago, it was a combination of rookie mistakes, poor training techniques but the most important of all muscle imbalance. After a 2 months out of running , 8 weeks of physical therapy you start wondering, could I prevent this? Will this happen again? How can I increase my milage and performance without getting hurt?. It is no secret that the key of running performance can not be restricted as just running, however is a common mistake to see runners not incorporating strength routines to their training, which can improve your running performance but also prevent injuries causes for muscle imbalance. Forty percent of injuries in runners are knee related, some of them easily preventable. As running gets popular, the increase of this type of injury unfortunately will be seen more and more often.
Osteoarthritis is a common and affects over 20 million Americans. I recently read an article that intrigued me and led me to research and write about it. In the process I found many references, studies and specific cases on how the method of Pilates is an excellent method and how it has helped so many people overcome the condition and be able to continue an active lifestyle. I found information about osteoarthritis mostly online; reading about the causes, symptoms, treatments, and people’s success stories through Pilates. There are many therapists, doctors and Pilates studios that recommend Pilates as a treatment and successful ongoing activity to facilitate gaining healthier joints. Because osteoarthritis affects so many people I wanted to educate myself on it more and understand the cause and treatments for it. I wanted to know what I can do, through the method of Pilates, to help those suffering from this condition.
Barre classes are the new fitness craze. Pulling together techniques from dance, Pilates and yoga. Barre makes for a fun, energetic calorie-burning workout. Barre offers many health benefits from strength to flexibility, but if a ‘Barre Tender’ doesn’t have proper body mechanics and awareness it can lead to injury. Barre can be hard on the lumbar spine, hips and knees if not performed correctly or if one doesn’t have enough strength. Pilates complements a Barre routine nicely. Not only does Pilates help a Barre student understand proper alignment and spinal placement, but it can also strengthen muscles to prevent injury.
At some point in their lives, most people will experience back pain. It may be nothing more than a dull ache or it could be debilitating pain. It may be cervical or in the lumbar area. The prognosis may be a simple muscle strain requiring rest or a structural anomaly requiring surgery. The various problems and solutions most likely fall somewhere in-between. In this case, the client, Jane, suffered a severe sports injury that left her with degenerative and ruptured discs in the L4-S1 region of the lumbar spine. After years of surgical and non-surgical interventions, Jane is trying Pilates to gain strength, flexibility, but most importantly, functional mobility. The following BASI conditioning program is to be considered a roadmap for a way forward.
The tibialis posterior is an extremely important leg muscle that stabilizes and supports the arch of the foot. It is not uncommon to see various problems in the tendon of the tibialis posterior, some of which can lead to tendonitis and cause increased pain in the foot. Given the relationship between the foot and the leg, knee and hip, posterior tibial tendon problems can greatly affect the alignment of the feet, ankles, knees and hips. Thus, it is important to have strong muscles and stable joints in the ankles and feet to avoid further problems in the body. This paper focuses on problems associated with posterior tibial tendon stress and identifies a Pilates program appropriate for this condition. The program is intended to ease the tendon’s symptoms and strengthen the muscles of the foot, leg, and hip in hopes of preventing further pain, injuries and surgery.
Like most athletes, dancers are hard on their bodies. Injuries will always be prevalent, with varying severity. Some dancers encounter more injuries than others, some being genetic, while others are functional. The difference between the injuries male dancers encounter, those female dancers encounter, can also be varied. Body types, the intensity of one’s dance schedule, genetics, injury history, what type of dance, other daily activities are all factors that can affect how or how often one is injured. Because of weakness and instability, once a certain area is injured, the injury is very likely to reoccur in the same area. Dislocation of the knee is a common injury for dancers because of the range of motion that can be demanded during their daily classes and rehearsals. Many times at a young age, dancers, especially ballerinas, are taught to “force” their bodies past their natural ability. Ballet in itself is a very unnatural thing for the human body. The amount of force put on the joints and muscles, the torque and range of motion, are all opposite of what the human body is “supposed” to do. But many times dancers are willing to do whatever it takes to be the best, even if it means doing what is contradictory for their tired, over-worked bodies.
Shoulder instability is common in many people. This is partly due to the unstable nature of the shoulder complex. To facilitate the shoulder’s large range of motion the shoulder joint (Gleno-humeral joint) is very shallow and is the most often dislocated joint in the body. Subluxation of the shoulder is a partial dislocation of the shoulder joint where the Humerus bone of the upper arm is half way in and half way out of the GH joint. Shoulder subluxation doesn’t usually require surgery. Possible complications include tears to ligament, chipping to the humerus bone, swelling and chronic pain. Precursors to a traumatic joint injury such as subluxation are muscle tightness, muscle weakness, tissue deterioration, disease, poor shoulder mechanics, poor posture and inadequate proprioception. This paper will show how the Pilates methodology and exercises were applied to gain proper strength and function in a person who experienced a shoulder subluxation.
Diastasis recti is a separation of the outermost abdominal muscles. The tissue which runs vertically down and joins the left and right abdominal muscles together is known as linea alba. Diastasis recti is caused by this conncective tissue stretching sideways and becoming thin and weak. The abdominal muscles play a vital role in supporting the body's internal organs and also the back. This separtation of the muscles causes a weak core and minimal protection for the internal organs. In some cases surgery is required due to the degree of separation; however, Pilates has proved to be an effective form of rehabilitation for diastasis recti. Because of its emphasis on core stabilization, the Pilates repertoire provides exercises that can assist in bringing the left and right side of the abdomen back together, and allowing the connective tissue to begin the healing process. This paper will provide exercises and discuss why they are appropriate for a postnatal client who has diastasis recti.
A medical laboratory scientist (MLS) (also referred to as a ‘medical technologist’ or ‘clinical scientist’) is a healthcare professional who performs chemical, hematological, immunologic, microscopic, and bacteriological diagnostic analyses on body fluids , and blood as well as other specimens. Medical laboratory scientists work in clinical laboratories at hospitals, doctors’ offices, reference labs, biotechnology labs and non-clinical industrial labs. This occupation requires standing or sitting with head, neck and shoulders flexed forward for prolonged periods peering through a microscope or manually distributing samples to a micro testing plate. This static positioning and repetitive motion often lead to muscle imbalances causing postural weaknesses referred to as Fatigue Posture. With the BASI Block System and principles of Joseph Pilates, we will emphasize strengthening hip flexors, abdominals (Transversus abdominis muscle and external obliques), upper back extensors, and neck flexors; together with creating length in the hamstrings, internal obliques and pectorals. Our approach will help reposition the posteriorly-tilted pelvis, open up the chest, and realign the ribcage over the pelvis.
This paper considers the changes that occur to a woman during pregnancy and includes a Pilates conditioning program for a new mother based on the BASI Block System. It includes an anatomical description and notes changes away from ideal posture. It also includes details of contraindications and specific issues associated with new mothers returning to a Pilates program. Clients and instructors should be aware of conditions following pregnancy such as diastasis recti and pelvic floor laxity. They should also be familiar with the physiological and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy and the symptoms and discomforts from pregnancy, delivery and looking after a newborn. Recommencing Pilates clients should have medical clearance and the repertoire and movements should be safe and controlled.
The purpose of this paper is to implement a rehabilitation program designed for an active individual with a painful scapular deviation called Scapular Dyskinesis. He attributes this condition to a high school wrestling injury, made worse by rigorous, daily yoga practice. The goal of shoulder rehabilitation is to establish normal function rather than to alleviate specific symptoms. The program must involve the restoration of normal anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, and the correction of any adaptations that have occurred, in order to re-establish the normal kinetic chain of action. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the rehabilitation of not only the subject’s shoulder, but of the strength, posture, and spinal alignment of the whole body, utilizing the holistic approach of the BASI Block System.
골다공증은 우리 주변에서 흔히 볼 수 있는 질병이고 또한 우리 부모님 이 걸
릴 수 있는 질병이기에 골다공증과 필라테스를 연관지어 연구해 보기로 했다.
현대 식습관의 문제로 골다공증 발병의 나이는 점차 어려지고 있고 이제는 더
이상 늙은 사람걸리는 질병이 아니기에 예방하고자 이 주제를 선택 하였다.
Karate is a martial art that use all extremities range of motion and all spinal articulation in it’s movement. Speed is a must in Karate techniques but speed without stability is nothing. Stances in Karate needs many muscle co-contracting together to get stability, same things in punching, kicking, blocking and body moving. Punching needs shoulder stability, kicking needs pelvic stability and all movement needs spinal articulation and core strength to get better technique. Because of so many muscles and joint work at the same time, Karate-Ka (person who train Karate) needs body awareness to prevent injuries in doing Karate technique, in a Karate competition and Karate as a martial art. Pilates is a complete body, mind and spirit exercise to acquire complete control of our body and develops body uniformly, correct wrong postures, restores physical vitality, invigorates the mind and elevates the spirit. ( “Return to Life through Contrology”, Pilates H. Joseph, 1945 ). Principles of BASI PILATES are Awareness, Balance, Breath, Concentration, Center, Control, Efficiency, Flow, Precision and Harmony is a unique method and different from many other forms of conditioning that guides BASI Pilates practicians to acquire all Pilates benefits. BASI Pilates principles could be same principles in Karate Techniques and very useful to Karate-Ka to mastered his techniques. Pilates will improve posture, joints ROM, core strength, spinal flexibility, body stability and mobility and prepare the body to do any kind functional activities, prevent injuries, anything body conditioning like one of them is Karate. Karate-Ka needs Pilates to mastered Karate Techniques.
It is well known that brides want their wedding day to be perfect! Every detail from invitations to flowers and decorations, but more importantly, looking amazing in their wedding dress. In a Cornell University study, "70% of 272 engaged women said they wanted to lose weight, typically 20 pounds" for their wedding day ("Bridal Hunger Games"). The goal of this research paper and case study is to demonstrate how brides can use Pilates to tone their whole body with an emphasis on their upper extremities (arms, shoulders and back) to look fabulous in their wedding dress. Susan, a 28 year old female, is getting married in August of 2014. Her goal for her wedding day is to lose a few pounds and get a full body workout while toning her arms. She has been running along with doing yoga, but not much strength training. She has no injuries and has taken Pilates classes before, so we can include some intermediate skills in her program.
This study shows a real world example of the problems that arise from having the strength to perform movement without having the flexibility to truly move as needed.
Those who suffer with Lyme Disease are generally overwhelmed with feelings of anxiety, fatigue, inflammation and overall helplessness. They are plagued by countless symptoms which mimic a handful of other diseases including Multiple Sclerosis, Fibromyalgia, Parkinson's, Arthritis and Ataxia to name a few. When they cannot even count on the medical field to support them in their fight against lyme, what can they turn to? This is perhaps the question of all questions. Though there is not a clear, proven, cure for all cases of Lyme, there are several measures that one can take to become proactive in their fight against the debilitating disease. This case study will summarize the research of how a specially designed Pilates program can alleviate many symptoms experienced by lyme disease sufferers- specifically tackling the issue of deep tissue inflammation. The research will chronicle a 22 year old female who suffers with chronic lyme disease. The results will summarize the positive changes she saw in her body and life in general during and after 30 sessions of Pilates training.
Scoliosis is a musculoskeletal condition in which one or more lateral curvatures are present, typically found either in the thoracic or lumbar spine. The spine protects the spinal cord, an essential part of the nervous system that connects to the brain, and sends neurological signals to the rest of the body. Developing the musculature around the spine will assist in taking pressure off the intervertebral disks (Between the vertebrae), and will help those diagnosed with scoliosis to perform movements with improved symmetry. In ballet there is often a great deal of pressure put on the dancer that the legs and feet must reach 90 degrees of external rotation on either side. If the structure of the hip joint does not accommodate such an extreme external rotation, but the rotation is still forced from the knees and feet, the feet will tend to pronate, and the alignment of the lower extremities is compromised. This may put a great deal of stress on the medial collateral ligament of the knee, or anterior cruciate ligament, and often times affect the hips as well. Correct placement of the foot, and strong hip rotators are essential in maintaining alignment of the legs.
El deporte del Golf actualmente requiere de un acondicionamento físico adicional para preparar la mente y el cuerpo para el juego. Pilates brinda a los golfistas una parte integral dentro de su entrenamiento, desarrollando tanto una fortaleza física como mental. La fortaleza física mediante un incremento de fuerza, estabilidad y flexibilidad para mejorar el juego, así como una gran sensación de bienestar y equilibrio que aportan a la fortaleza mental. Desarrollando estas fortalezas, también se aporta una fundación importante para la prevención de lesiones.
Stand-up Paddle Boarding (“paddle boarding”) is a water sport that involves standing on a large, flat, surf-like board, typically measuring approximately 10 feet long and 2.5 feet wide, while using one long paddle to steer and glide the board across water. This is a sport and hobby that is enjoyed by people of all ages and levels of physical ability. This paper focuses on Pilates as a method to strengthen the muscles, alignment, and flexibility of the entire body, with an emphasis on the feet, in order to increase one’s ability to remain balanced, controlled, and standing comfortably while paddling on the board. While many muscles are used to stabilize the body, control the muscles, and move the board through the water, the abdominals are the primary muscle focus that contributes to successful paddle boarding, but the feet and ankles also play a crucial role. My case study focuses on a client who is new to Pilates, a healthy man in his early thirties, who loves paddle boarding but often suffers from sore feet and the inability to balance comfortably for long periods of time due to pronation of the feet caused by pes planus (flat feet).
When examining tennis, players do not use just one but many muscles in the body to create a groundstroke or serve. Rotation, core, coordination, stability and mastering the kinetic chain are key components to playing tennis. Muscles that are used start from the lower extremity to the upper extremity, beginning from the calves, quads, hamstrings, hip abductors and adductors, hip flexors, abdominals, oblique, to the pectoralis major and many more muscles. It is common to find disproportional muscle growth in tennis players because the player’s dominant side is always in constant use. Frequent use of the dominant side can lead to serious injuries for both the upper and lower extremities of the human body such as scapular dysfunction. With Pilates and the right repertoire, tennis players can strengthen their non-dominant side to equal the dominant side and prevent serious injury.
Golf is not a game of power and force but a one sided sport that overtime can create injuries due to the imbalance of the golf swing. Pilates and golf conditioning is a hand in hand process that shares focus on individual development and in which the player strives to perform his or her personal best. To lessen the possibility of injury for both the professional and amateur golfer a Pilates conditioning program includes focus on flexibility, stability, and strength and recognizing your own physical limitations is a definite requirement. Precision is far more important than power in both golf and Pilates.
Endurance running is defined as any distance over 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) [wikipedia]. It is a great cardiovascular workout, as well as musculoskeletal stress on the hip joint and lower extremities in particular. To understand these stresses, one must observe the phases of the running gait cycle. It can be broken down into two phases, stance and swing through (happening in opposition between the right and left sides), both of which further break down as follows. The stance phase can be broken down into three phases, including the heel strike, mid-stance, and toe off. During heel strike, the foot should be in supination, and the leg in a slight external rotation. During mid-stance, the foot pronates as the force is distributed from the heel, through the arch of the foot, leading to the toe-off phase. During this phase, the foot goes into plantar flexion and supination, to prepare for the swing through phase. This phase includes internal rotation as the back leg comes through to the front, where it reaches the final phase of external rotation in order to repeat the stance phase. The repetitive stress that the running gait cycle puts on the lower limbs highlights weaknesses and imbalances in the body. Therefore, Pilates with it’s combined repertoire of strength through a full range of motion in addition to stretching, is a great form of cross training and rehabilitation for both experienced and inexperienced endurance runners. In addition, the constant focus on core strengthening in Pilates helps runners to support the lower body through prolonged impact by transmitting some of that force through the muscles of the trunk.
Lower back pain (LBP) is a huge problem in society, it’s estimated that 25% of all physical therapy visits in the U.S. are people with lower back pain*. World-wide there’s an incidence of LBP with 80-90% of people during one’s life*. There are a number of causes of LBP. This paper is focused specifically on a fairly typical scenario. The case study is of a woman with poor posture (hyperlordosis) and disc bulge, she spends extended periods sitting (shortening hamstrings) and limiting movement in body, and does gardening in her spare time (over doing forward flexion). It is recommended she start a tailored Pilates conditioning program. The program aims to get balance in body to reduce load on her lower back. It does this by strengthening weak areas (core muscles, hip abductors, upper back stabilizers). And stretching out tight areas (psoas, hamstrings). There is an emphasis throughout the program to improve body awareness and postural correction in the hope that she takes these new skills into her work and play.
Most people have heard of Parkinson’s disease and think that they know what Parkinson’s disease ‘looks like.’ From just watching Michael J. Fox on his NBC show, the general public understands that Parkinson’s has a huge effect on a person’s physical movement but that it’s a neurological disease. If that were the only information that one had on the disease, that alone would be enough to suggest that a regimen of Pilates might help. A disease that progressively inhibits the brains ability to control the body and an exercise program that strengthens a mind body connection: seems an obvious fit. The fundamental principles of Pilates, and particularly the way they are presented in the BASI approach, are things that are incredibly important to people dealing with Parkinson’s. For them, the ‘co-ordination of Body, Mind and Spirit,’ becomes central to addressing the debilitating symptoms of this disease. If the groundwork of this ‘co-ordination’ is established before the disease progresses, perhaps that progression might be slowed somewhat. At the very least, the time spent practicing Pilates can give respite from the stresses of the disease and provide a place where movement can be fearless.
This paper presents research about the importance of hip disassociation in stabilizing the lumbar spine. The hip is a ball-and-socket joint, which is formed by the articulations of the head of the femur (ball) with the acetabulum (socket) of the pelvis. The hip joint is healthiest when the ball spins in the cup, also described as full range of motion of the hip. In our daily life we spend most of our days with our hips flexed, as we are constantly sitting by a desk at work, driving in traffic for hours and sitting watching television. Our hips rarely get a chance to use their full range of motion. When mobility is reduced, it leads to added stress on the lumbar spine. Hip disassociation is a key to a healthy and happy hip joint.
Most sports and activities require repetitive movement in the same range of motion, and without proper form or alignment this can lead to serious injury. Dance training is a great example of high impact movement, that when done incorrectly over time can cause serious muscle and joint damage. Dancers are asked to move their bodies in ways that seem impossible to the average person but with vigorous training it can be accomplished. This is not always safe for one’s body, and requires knowledge of proper body mechanics to avoid injury. Some of the most common injuries related to dance include lower back pain, and hip and knee joint issues. This research paper will be focusing on lower back pain in dancers. By incorporating Pilates into a dancer’s regimen, it can help rehabilitate already vulnerable muscles and joints, while also building the muscles needed to prevent further injury and help overall performance.
The purpose of this paper is to take a look at the effectiveness of Pilates exercises for men. The exercise focus will be building hamstring flexibilty. Pilates exercises lengthen and strengthen all muscles. A common male sports injury is a hamstring strain. This Pilates routine will offer active stretches, build flexibility and add strength to the hamstrings, in particular. Hamstring flexibility is important for everyone, but it seems to be something lacking in most men. The inability to touch toes is common. Exercises to increase this flexibilty will be included.
The growth spurt peaks at around 11 / 12 years old (girls). It is usually around this time when dance becomes more physically demanding, time consuming and when students are starting to consider whether to take their dancing seriously or not. Because of the enormous psychological and social changes that the young dancer is going through they become extremely vulnerable and may be easily convinced to give up dance, because of pressure to spend more time with friends and because it becomes more difficult. Sudden increases in height and weight cause decreases in strength, flexibility, co-ordination, and balance. This along with dramatically fluctuating hormone changes can overwhelm the young dancer. The way the growth spurt is handled by parents and teachers can have a profound impact on the students dance development as well as psychological health. It is important that the young dancer is made aware of the changes in their bodies so they can have a healthy approach to the modifications in their training.
As a Pilates instructor my job is to ensure that I am instructing my clients and students to move in a healthy manner. I am not a physical therapist, however my goal is to have enough anatomical knowledge so that I am aware of the vast differences between individual’s ranges of motions (ROM) at the hip joint. In my experience as a mover and dancer, there are certain movements I cannot do no matter how many times I have stretched to strengthened the hip joint. Having more awareness of structural and functional deviations between certain individual’s hip structures is helpful to build a Pilates work out regime for a client’s need. The need could be to increase flexibility or to build strength, or both. All the while, it is my goal to instruct the client to make sure the individual is working within his or her anatomical structural ROM.
My paper takes a deeper look into how society, our lifestyles, and our jobs, condition us into having poor posture and how Pilates can prevent this from getting worse. Moreover, it can actually better ones posture, and more importantly, become a choice to a healthier and more fulfilling life. It will contain an outline of the different kinds of bad posture and their effects on the body, such as hyperlordosis/kyphosis, flat back, humped/fatigue posture, and scoliosis. It will also include an analysis on the importance of maintaining thenatural curves of the spineand striving for the ideal posture.Finally, there will be a description of the different aspects of the BASI Pilates principles and case study, with personally made workouts putting into practice these principles to improve the posture of a kyphotic man who also suffers from scoliosis.
Kyphosis refers to an exaggerated curve in the thoracic region of the spine. A kyphotic posture can give someone a hunched over and round shouldered look, and is fairly common among adults who spend the majority of their time sitting at desks. This paper gives details of a case study that explores the effects of the BASI Pilates method on a kyphotic posture. It will conclude that with regular Pilates sessions, the muscular imbalances that cause Kyphosis can be addressed, and the posture improved.
Joseph Pilates considérait lui même ce qu'il appelait à l'époque Contrology, non pas comme une série d'exercices mais plutôt comme une manière de vivre, un chemin vers le bien-être ou le mieux être, une collaboration entre le corps et l'esprit. En d'autre terme, une approche que l'on peut qualifier "d'holistique". Au-delà d'une analyse technique comme pourrait l'être une étude de cas sur telle ou telle pathologie de l'épaule ou de la colonne vertébrale et les bienfaits de la méthode Pilates sur ce genre de problématique, il s'agit plutôt d'une réflexion par rapport à mon parcours durant ces mois de formation, à la manière personnelle que j'ai eu d'appréhender ce rapport entre le corps et l'esprit que Pilates lui-même évoquait et répondre de façon pas si subjective que ça à la question : Pilates, une Approche Holistique ?
This paper will explore the benefits of Pilates for an individual with Parkinson disease (PD), a disease of the nervous system. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these symptoms may include tremors, rigidity or stiffness, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking and gait. My subject and inspiration is 78 year old, Dr. Salvatore (Sam) DeFrancesco, known as Dr. De. He was diagnosed with PD on 1.9.08. While Dr. De does suffer with symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, cramping, facial immobility, and lack of balance, his medication, Pilates and exercise regime continue to help him on a daily basis. While not specifically recommended in terms of treatment, this man with PD has shown how Pilates exercise in particular addresses and helps with the management of his disease and restoration of an acceptable level of function.
My subject choice for this paper is personal and was lived out through my very own experience. You see, I am Betty...I chose Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD), because it is what led me to discover Pilates. Pilates was my silver lining to an unfortunate card dealt me in that delivery room all those years ago. It works, it's effective, if you do the work and are consistent, it delivers the results. My results are my very own personal testimony that I will shout from the mountaintops until the day I die. I was in pain every day for 30 years and now...I'm not. Pilates for me is a ministry, I want to share with tohers how they too, can be pain free, or be in less pain. More flexible, more toned, be in better health with out killing themselves at the standard gym. My research was my personal experience, Callie Jenkins Spitzer, of Poise Pilates+Barre in Bakersfield, Californina, Quest Imaging and the Internet. Callie and I have spent many hours together doing Pilates and studying the movements of Pilates. The MRI images you will see are mine, taken 6 years ago. Included in the paper are the doctors reports from these images.
Running is a very popular recreational activity that has many cardiovascular, muscular and mental benefits. However, running, particularly ultramarathons puts many physical stresses on the body. Mountainous terrain, spending hours on ones feet, history of prior injury, and poor lower limb biomechanics may results in gait compensations and/or acute injury, particularly to the Achilles tendon. This paper will explore the pathology of Achilles tendinopathy in rummers and how best to prevent reinjury in a male ultrarunner using a Pilates conditioning program. A review of th gait cycle and skeletal and musculature of the lower limb aids in understanding the impact of running long-distances on the Achilles tendon, and how Pilates may benefit runners
Scoliosis is a condition of curvature of the spine, that represents imbalance in the structure of the spine and its connecting frame. This means that a person's every move is affected, whether sitting, standing, walking, working or excerising. In this paper, we will explore how BASI Pilates can help bring balance and relief from the symptoms of scoliosis. With Karen M., a case study, we will get to know her particular symptoms, sensations and see how incorporating the BASI Block System into her sessions affects her movement patterns and most of all brings on subtle, yet effective changes to offer her a more balanced musculo-skeletal environment. After a 10 week program, Karen M. is experiencing less tension, and more strength. She is able to relax more easily during sessions and in her daily life as well as enjoy moving in a combination of both support and freedom.
The problem with highly functional extremely active adults, is that they are so dependent on their level of health and the endorphins their active lifestyle provides, that any injury, surgery, or set back along the road to recovery, can send them into a tailspin emotionally. They may even engage in activities they know to be contraindicated, in workouts they don’t inform you, because “they are different.” As health professionals, we must not engage beyond our scope, yet provide an outlet for the physical and emotional rehabilitation the body and the mind. For the purpose of helping the increasing number of women who will turn to Pilates after breast reconstruction surgery, this case study is on myself. I am a 44-year old active woman. In the Winter of 2010, I’d had a series of back issues relating to L/4 L/5 disk herniations. I went to see Aimee at Smartbody Pilates for help reconditioning my back. I had been doing Pilates with Aimee weekly for about a year when I decided to have breast reduction surgery, to reduce the 32 DDD weight on my 115-pound frame. One year later, I was diagnosed with breast cancer, had bilateral mastectomies with expanders, and then implant exchange surgery. There were several complications throughout the process, which necessitated additional surgeries and “time off.“ This 12-week case study began two weeks after the final post-mastectomy exchange to implant surgery. Some exercises had to be modified or omitted, especially in the initial phase. The program had to address not only the BASI Pilates program chosen to rehabilitate upper body post-mastectomy, and continued back – strengthening, but also give credence to the emotional benefit Pilates played, after multiple physical and life plan setbacks.
My case study is about a client who contacted me 9 years after her hip resurfacing procedure as she was suffering with sciatica in her right side. Alison, age 41, walks with a severe limp and has suffered with her right hip from being a teenager. With very little physiotherapy following her procedure (2 x physiotherapy sessions , 9 years ago) she has lost all strength in her right hip stabiliser’s and struggles on a daily basis with walking and putting her socks and shoes on. During Alison’s first assessment I begin to see that Alison has no pelvis and lumber stabilisation and struggles to engage her right hamstring and gluteal. Alison attends the studio once a week as a private session and is also given a home program that she must do to support our work at the studio. After 6 weeks Alison has seen a noticeable change in her ‘limp’ and also her stamina when walking to the shops.
Today’s average business professional leads an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Office jobs are frequently spent behind a desk, at a computer, and require longer and longer days. Human beings are not designed to sit for periods of eight, ten, even twelve hours of the day; the effects on the body are apparent, surfacing by the way of hunched shoulders and increased thoracic curvature (kyphosis), tight upper chest muscles, weak abdominals and increased lumbar curvature (hyperlordosis). This paper examines the progress of Sarah, a young woman whose job requires her to sit at a desk for 9 hours a day and has resulted in the pronounced effects mentioned above. Pilates is an effective, safe way to challenge her sedentary lifestyle, restore strength and balance to her body, and bring Sarah back her posture and well-being before pain or injury set in.
In this paper, Clara a 20 year old female assault victim was asked to undergo a 30 week Pilates BASI Block System Program. Clara had weak back extensors, scapular stabilization, abdominals and hamstrings along with tight pectorals. The program she underwent targeted strengthening the weak muscles and stretching the tight muscles. Additionally, Clara’s main purpose for participating in the program was to reduce her anxiety and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms. Through controlled breathing and focusing on reducing tension in specific body parts, Clara worked on reducing anxious emotions. The results from the program showed that Clara gained strength in the targeted muscles as well as learned methods of reducing anxiety with the help of the exercises. She felt an inner and physical strength that had been lacking since the assault.
It is now widely known that ¾ of injuries sustained by rock climbers are of the overuse variety, not the result of hard falls, and that the three most common sites of non-fall injuries are the fingers, shoulders, and elbows. The risk of such injuries increases with skill level and with the perceived importance of climbing to the individual because the tenacious climber, fearing the atrophy of rest, will often over train, ignore the warning signs of injury, or begin climbing before an injury is fully healed. Proper training of the antagonist muscles is also gaining attention within the community as a way to avoid injury and maintain muscle balance. A dedicated Pilates practice can be of great benefit to the climber who wishes to enhance performance, strengthen core muscles, correct imbalances, improve posture and flexibility, and prevent some common injuries associated with this brutal, beautiful sport.
A subject's Pilates practice is charted over a six month period from the onset of a three month post-rehabilitive conditioning program through a three month sport-specific swimming conditioning program. Pilates conditioning began upon near-completion of rehabilitation from injuries sustained in a car accident 5 months prior. Areas affected by trauma included the lumbar and cervical spines, the left shoulder and left radius. Pilates was sought as a means of: enhancing motor control by strenghtening body stabilizing muscles; improving posture; and gaining better coordination by acquiring functional movement patterns. Following post-rehabilitation conditioning, the subject took up competitive swimming which redefined the goal of Pilates practice as a means to improve swimming performance. After the post-rehabilitative phase, both the subject's advancement in level and change in goal necessitated the creation of a new Pilates program. The current study demonstrates how alterations in programming reflect a shift in apparent goals while also revealing that some underlying needs remain constant regardless of the reason for practicing Pilates.
Pilates for hyperextension knees is a conditioning program which based on Mr. j case. Many people do not realize that hyperextension in future can cause serious complication, injuries. It is not only about feeling that we are instable, most of people feel pain, even swelling. We should remember, this instability and bigger range of motion than normal range of motion has a great impact on our knee, which is the biggest and the most complicated joint. Excessive extension can be a genetic problem like in Mr. J case but as well as result of accident –“if a football player leaps up and land on the heel of the straightened leg...” in this case ligaments can be weakness or even damaged. In Mr. J case Pilates program goal will be reinforcement and stabilization of knee ligaments, reeducation which consists of keeping a knee in a correct alignment and focus on using Quadriceps.
This paper examines the effectiveness of a holistic Pilates program – specifically the BASI Block System - to active individuals diagnosed with Primary Shoulder Impingement Syndrome (SIS). Shoulder Impingement Syndrome is not always specific to athletes or active individuals, and can be caused or aggravated by a variety of risk factors including overhead motions, throwing, reaching, swimming or joint and bone abnormalities. If left untreated, SIS may lead to tendonitis (inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons), bursitis or thinning/tearing of the rotator cuff tendons (Osteoarthritis Health Centre, 2005-2014). The focus of the paper is on conservative administered treatment over a four month period, with consideration given to both the client’s fitness and rehabilitation goals, whilst also bearing in mind any limitations and restrictions.
Finding the balance between strength and flexibility is challenging. Extreme flexibility can lead to a lack of stability, while excess strength can cause unwanted tension and limitations to movement and range of motion. Emmy is a former figure skater and in addition to practicing Pilates several times per week, she also practices yoga almost daily. One of her main areas of focus continues to be her shoulder region. Through studying Emmy’s tremendous flexibility in her shoulders, we developed a conditioning program that enabled her to strengthen underdeveloped muscles as well as increase strength and stability in a healthy manner. Emmy felt limited in regards to range of motion because in order to make actions such as lifting her arms up alongside her ears or reaching her arms out to the side at shoulder height, she felt unable to do so without making unintended compensations—usually by arching her lower lumbar spine. The ROM limitations were not due to a lack of flexibility, but due to a lack of strength.
Scoliosis is a spinal condition characterized by the appearance of one or more irregular lateral curvatures of the spine. Different treatment protocols are used depending on the severity and degree of these spinal curvatures. Extreme cases can be treated surgically or with the use of corrective braces, but in mild to moderate scoliosis cases the use of Pilates can be used with positive results. In formulating this research paper and case study, I sought to identify the ways in which a Pilates program could benefit a client with mild to moderate scoliosis; specifically focusing on utilizing the BASI repertoire to facilitate appropriate trunk flexion and extension as well as proper recruitment of the core.
Cotero es el término utilizado en Colombia para referirse a las personas que trabajan cargando y descargando los vehículos pesados que recorren la mayoría del territorio nacional con distintas mercancías a varios destinos. Este es un empleo informal. Algunos cuentan con un servicio de salud subsidiado por el gobierno pero no están afiliados a un sistema que los cubra en riesgos profesionales. Y sí que corren riesgos. Entre los graves desórdenes musculo esqueléticos a los que están expuestos los coteros, debido al inadecuado manejo de cargas, se encuentra la escoliosis postural. Cargar peso de un solo lado del cuerpo genera descompensaciones y hace que una parte de la espalda se fortalezca en detrimento de la otra. Para revertir esta condición, es necesario buscar el equilibrio a través del trabajo de la musculatura de la manera más equitativa posible, buscando elongación, alineación, buena postura y lo más importante una espalda saludable.
Running is undeniably one of the best forms of cardiovascular exercise. No matter what type of runner you are: long distance, short distance, for leisure, or as a profession, the repetitive movement is all the same. Naturally imbalances occur, whether it be a weak core, bad posture, or tight muscles. To enhance running, Pilates is a great tool to help counteract those imbalances. Utilizing a special Pilates program for a runner’s needs can be of upmost benefit. In this paper a case study was performed on a runner, James, who typically ran up to 5 miles three times a week. I laid out a Pilates program that included core strengthening, leg strengthening and stretching, posture, as well as balance. By the end of the program James found that he had more flexibility, less soreness, and overall better running experience. This demonstrates the wonderful effects that Pilates can have as a cross-training method.
The knee is one of the most important joints of our body. It plays an essential role in movement, related to, but not limited to jumping. As a former basketball athlete and current volleyball player, my client Andrea Wilkinson has developed Patellar Tendonitis – a common knee injury resulting from inflammation of the patellar tendon from overuse. This paper discusses the structure of the knee joint, and more specifically the patellar tendon. It also discusses the pathology of Patellar Tendonitis – a common injury that occurs when you place repeated stress on your patellar tendon. It then explores the use of the BASI Pilates block system, to create a program for an athlete with patellar tendonitis, with the goal of contributing towards improved performance on and off the court without worsening the condition.
This case study presents the Pilates based treatment of an individual, AG, with a complex medical history including multilevel cervical and lumbar spondylosis and degenerative disc disease, L5-S1 left-side posterior disc herniation (HNP), L4-5 mild spinal canal stenosis, osteoporosis, and abnormal posture/mild scoliosis. Her multiple spine conditions present a unique challenge to designing a Pilates rehabilitation program. Her spinal stenosis and excessive lumbar lordosis would indicate avoiding spinal extension, while, her discogenic pathologies and osteoporosis indicate avoiding spinal flexion based activities. While these conflicting contraindications heavily influenced AG’s program, the primary consideration in designing her Pilates repertoire revolved around correcting her abnormal posture and lack of right hip extension and hip dissociation in her gait cycle. The primary challenge in designing AG’s program was correcting her excessive lumbar lordosis by choosing exercises that bias a posterior pelvic tilt, while avoiding any exercises with excessive trunk flexion, loaded spinal flexion, or combined flexion/rotation movements that may aggravate AG’s lumbar disk pathology.
Living in Alacati, Turkey, one of the world’s most popular places for wind-and kitesurfing, has lead me naturally to this case study on how Pilates can benefit and compliment the sport of kitesurfing. Kitesurfing is a water surface sport riding on a modified surfboard, similar to a wakeboard, while directing a specially designed kite, using the wind for propulsion. Kitesurfing, while considered an extreme sport, works out the whole body in an intense, but fairly balanced manner. Kitesurfing can enhance your balance, strengthen your core, and improve coordination and concentration. That said, and this applies especially to beginners, it is also a highly demanding and dangerous sport, which, without proper training or proprioceptive awareness, holds a risk of amplifying physical imbalances and weaknesses, which can lead to injuries and accidents. Pilates focuses on many of the aspects strived for in kitesurfing, such as balance, awareness, centering, concentration, control, flow… making the two forms of exercise a perfect match. Pilates will help a kitesurfer, increase his/her strength and performance and can help prevent injuries.
The many structural problems slouching causes include forward migration of head and rounding of shoulders. The migration of head and rounding of shoulders is then found to cause muscle imbalances between force couples, manifesting through pain and dysfunction of the shoulder. Whether imbalances in other part of the body may have caused the symptom or vice versa, conventional exercise programs and therapies often overlook the importance of conditioning the body as a whole, only focusing on the muscles responsible; rotator cuff muscles. This paper discusses the structure of shoulder girdle and the spine on a functional continuum and how BASI Pilates block system, when applied as a holistic exercise system, can contribute to achieving neck and shoulder girdle stabilization, and improving functional strength for a client diagnosed with functional shoulder impingement.
Ballet is a rigorous profession in which a steady schedule of practice and performance places high physical demands on the body. As a result, professional ballet dancers often have considerable injuries that are commonly focused in the hip, knee, and ankle/foot. Many of these injuries are due to stress, incorrect body mechanics, repetition, and muscular imbalances. Because Pilates technique aims to correct muscular imbalances, establish proper mechanics, and strengthen the body, it is used as a method of rehabilitation and cross-training for professional ballet dancer Megan Mosely. The subject underwent a 7 month progressive Pilates program using the BASI Pilates Block System. A specific program was designed to focus on the hip, knee and ankle, with an emphasis on proper mechanics, and joint stability. Upon completion of the 7 month regimen, the subject reported a decrease in pain, with an increase in strength, joint stability, and confidence.
The elderly population have more than age in common. They suffer from debilitating spine issues and pain; common issues are Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, which may lead to surgery, called a Laminectomy. The Scoliosis they may have been diagnosed with as a child, will begin to show signs or worsen; Sciatica pain becomes a part of daily life. These issues are in part genetic, but also part of their history. Manual labour with long hours of standing on cement floors using improper body mechanics, lack of body awareness or simply carrying their children, have broken down their bodies. The cycle of doctor visits, pain medications and being sedentary to relieve pain begins or accelerates. The sedentary life actually increasing pain, depression and muscle atrophy, loss of range of motion and further spine issues. Through a committed, consistent Pilates practice, the elderly with spine issues can enjoy lives with less pain, greater functional strength, balance and independence; reversing the cycle of pain, doctor visits and pills.
I decided to write about Osteoporosis because I think it is absolutely important to know and do something for keeping our bones healthy. In my proximity, I see there is not much interest for Osteoporosis issues. At least in my studio, when I talk with my clients about health problems it is obviously they are concern to make lifestyle changes to prevent conditions like cancer and heart disease. And, unfortunately, the top of their wellness list does not include something related to Osteoporosis. I consider we have to pay more attention to this subject. I can say for certain that Pilates technique can help to prevent and manage this disease. We fortunately have a wonderful method and a substantial repertoire of exercises for keeping the body balanced and healthy. I encourage everyone to understand that Osteoporosis can put the body in danger if we doing nothing for keeping it under control.
Are we all familiar with the Facebook meme that balks at how different we were as kids from the modern, inactive, sedentary, semi-dormant kids of today? We rode bikes without helmets, drank directly from the hose, came home when the lights came on, ate gluten, didn’t have 200 cable channels, computers and our own cell phones and therefore we played outside. We laugh (because it’s funny) but the tragedy of the situation is that on top of a poor diet and physical inactivity, our kids and young adults are spending hours a day stationary, hunched in front of a computer screen or handheld device, both at school and at home. This extreme inactivity and persistent, repetitive movement and position have the potential to cause chronic postural issues, such as rounded shoulders, forward head, kyphosis or lumbar lordosis, as well as lack of proper muscle strength and development. Not to mention the increased likelihood of depression, arthritis, digestive and breathing issues, increased potential for cervical disc injuries, shoulder injuries, or arthritis. This is particularly alarming given that habits formed in adolescence typically carry on into adulthood.
Rebecca came to me with the hope to strengthen her abdominals. She had never done Pilates before and the only type of physical activity she participated in was walking. She had very little to no abdominal strength and no body-mind awareness. This was mainly due to the fact that she had her abdominal wall cut through twice. Once when she was 17 due to Crones disease, then again eight years later when she had a C-section. Because of this her abdominals were very weak and stress was put upon her back, causing back pain. She also had poor posture and a slightly kyphosis spine. My goal was to get her on a program that would start to connect her mind to her abdominals, strengthen her abdominals (especially lower abdominals), as well as straighten her posture.
The purpose of this research paper is it to demonstrate how the Pilates method can benefit the activities of daily living (ADL) of individuals afflicted with Spinocerebellar Ataxia. Numerous research articles have quantified the results of physiotherapy on several aspects of gait velocity, lateral sway, and inter-limb coordination. Physical therapy has also shown significant improvement on static and dynamic balance in patients with cerebellar degenerative diseases. Incorporating Pilates as a facilitator of controlled coordinated movement can aid the longevity of an individual’s ability to perform ADLs through the course of their degenerative process.
The dental professional, more than any other, is notorious for slouching. Hunching over patients, reaching and stretching in awkward postions. The physical strains and repetitive movements required by the occupation can lead to muscle imbalances, postural dysfunction and compensatory movement patterns. Leaving the dentist with pain or chronic discomfort. Pilates plays a key role in bringing the body back into indeal alignment. Strength is returned to the unused muscles while allowing the tight overworked muscles to relax and lengthen. Muscles once again take over their natural roles and no longer need to compensate for weakness in other areas of the body. A customized conditioning program for the dental professional, utilizing the BASI Block System, validates the effictiveness of Pilates as a method to return the body to balance and help improve a doctor's ability to practice dentistry with greater ease.
My first priority was to gain an understanding into why I actually suffered from scapular winging. I gathered information on the possible causes and treatment. As I needed to view my scapulae both at rest and in motion, I took video recordings. Of particular interest was how the scapular moved as the arms were returned from flexion and as they were taken into horizontal adduction. Detailed study of the scapular and the muscles of the shoulder joint helped me reach a decision on what was needed to address the problem. I was then able to devise a conditioning program utilizing the BASI Block System.
The purpose of this research paper and case study is to explore the benefit of a consistent Pilates practice in the lives of businessmen and businesswomen as it relates to back health. Low back pain is estimated to affect nearly 80% percent of the adult population at some point in their life (BASI, 51). Research also shows a strong correlation of low back pain to extended periods of sitting (NASM, 5). This is cause for concern considering the average 8 hour business day for most is spent at a desk. In addition to proper sitting mechanics, an effective and consistent Pilates practice may be an effective measure to protect against back pain occurring or recurring. If you are currently experiencing back pain, it is important to check with your doctor before beginning a Pilates program to discuss any possible contraindications. Renee Beason is a 28 year old female who is the subject of this case study. Renee works in human resources for a corporate company that requires extended periods of sitting throughout the day. She has had no back injuries but experiences occasional periods of low back pain that have been diminished through the implementation of a Pilates program. She has been cleared to engage in Pilates and given no restrictions.
Degenerative disc disease (“DDD”) is a condition characterized by damage to the intervertebral discs. It can manifest anywhere along the spine, however, it is most common in the lower back (“lumbar”) area. The spinal column is one of the most vital parts of the human body, supporting our trunks and making all of our movements possible. When the spine is injured and its function is impaired the consequences can be painful and even disabling. A number of patients will develop chronic or degenerative spinal disorders that will be disabling. DDD is part of the natural process of growing older and to a certain degree this process happens to everyone. However, not everyone who has degenerative changes in their lumbar spine has pain. Many people who have “normal” backs have MRI scans that show disc herniations, degenerative changes, and narrowed spinal canals. Every patient is different, and it is important to realize that not everyone develops symptoms as a result of degenerative disc disease.
In order to protect the lower back and shoulders from injury during heavy lifting in the work environment, many aspects of movement must be considered. The position of the body, the speed of movement, and engagement of the correct muscles are all critical to a safe lift. Learning, through Pilates, to engage the abdominals, control the breath, maintain scapular stabilization and strengthen the back and leg muscles will all transition to the work place in order to preserve a healthy back and shoulders while lifting heavy objects.
Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a term that is used to describe a painful condition of low pack pain. The condition is generally related to either too much mobility in the joint or too little. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction can be a nuisance but it is seldom dangerous and rarely leads to the need for surgery. Most people who suffer from this problem can reduce the pain and manage the problem with exercise methods. Michael is a 49-year-old Litigation Attorney. He has been relatively active throughout his life and use to play many aggressive sports. Currently, he exercises using the Elliptical trainer and plays golf. He suffers from back pain and muscle spasms due to a combination of degenerated disks in the lumbar spine and hyper mobility in the Sacroilic Joint. Michael wakes up to lower back pain each morning. Some days he has a hard time getting out of bed. Often, after a long car ride or sitting too long in a meeting. Michael's orthoopedic doctor took x-rays and MRIs and was diagnosed with Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction. After working for several months with a physical therapist, Michael was referred to a Pilates Instructor. Michael has been working consistantly with his Pilates Instructor three times a week and has achieved stabilization, strength and balance in his body from the BASI approach to Pilates exercise.
This research paper will summarize a conditioning program utilizing the BASI Block System designed for Catherine, a 52 year-old woman diagnosed with Scheuermann's disease. This condition is characterized by disc degeneration in the thoracic vertebrae leading to an increase of the thoracic kyphosis. Exaggerated kyphosis can lead to an increased lumbar lordosis. The client presents very moderate thoracic kyphosis but relatively severe lumbar hyperlordosis. She has been suffering from back pain since she was diagnosed with Scheuermann's disease at the age of 17. The clients grandmother being a yoga teacher, she started yoga at 4 years old and kept practicing throughout her childhood and adolescence. This condition begins in childhood and the fact that Catherine mobilized her spine with regular yoga exercises early on explains that she only devolped a slightly increased thoracic kyphosis. The conditioning program is a combination of beginner and intermediate level Pilates exercises, the focus of which is on thoracic extension, lumbar flexion, upper back extension and scapular stabilization. The program was designed to strengthen abdominals, hamstrings and glutes, and stretch pectorals, lower back, hip flexors and rectus femoris. The client was highly motivated and had two objectives when embarking on this Pilates program: (1) improved posture and (2) a decrease in back pain.
Pilates is a uniquely well-suited exercise / fitness program that can greatly enhance the quality of life for the elderly segment of our population. Through Pilates, and its focus upon balance and strengthening of ligaments, tendons and joint areas, older adults have the opportunity to increase their level of functional strength; thus aiding in the efficiency of daily life. Under the skilled supervision of a well-qualified Pilates instructor, the older adult embarks on an individualized program that concentrates on proprioceptive biomechanical awareness, balance, proper gait pattern, and postural positioning. This program assesses where the individual is at and sets up a series of small goals that safely initiate the progressive movement patterns to gradually address faulty motor strategies / compensations which have developed over their lifetime. The program is also complimented by simple homework to allow for continued growth and emancipation. Results include overall improved confidence, better balance, strength and flexibility when performing everyday tasks as well as in their life journey.
I would like to explain the wonders Pilates rehabilitation has done for a 30-year-old male. He has had a subacromial decompression and rotator cuff surgery. I will begin with explaining what a healthy shoulder looks like and how it should function. Then I will explain the procedure that was performed and the limitations and slow progress of a healing shoulder. Next I will discuss the common mistakes that the client made following his first surgery. After that I will discuss goals for the client, followed by a fundamental approach to the BASI block system. I will close with my conclusion and success of the client.
Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of a kidney. It may involve: the removal of part of one kidney (Partial Nephrectomy), the removal of all of one kidney (Simple Nephrectomy), the removal of one entire kidney, surrounding lymph nodes and the adrenal glad (Radical Nephrectomy), and the removal of a healthy kidney from a donor for the purpose of transplantation (Donor Nephrectomy). This procedure is performed on patients with severe kidney damage, whether it is from disease, traumatic injury or congenital conditions. Nephrectomy surgery could be a minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic surgery, or an open surgery. In laparoscopic nephrectomy, four small incisions in the abdomen wall are administered to allow a videoscope and surgical instruments to be inserted into the abdominal cavity to assist with the removal procedure. In open nephrectomy, a 6-10 in incision is made on the side or the front of the abdomen through several layers of muscles. In some cases, a rib may need to be removed to be able to perform the procedure.
With long commutes and hours spent at the computer, one young man’s modern lifestyle is taking a toll on his physical health. His consistent hunched-over, seated position has left him with a noticeable inward rotation of the shoulders and forward head. His tight pectoralis minor and weak rhomboids, mid trapezius and serratus anterior contribute to his constant discomfort in the thoracic spine and decreased mobility in both the cervical spine and shoulder joints. Utilizing the BASI Block System, a well-rounded Pilates regiment will provide reeducation for the muscles and function of the shoulder girdle. With focused guidance to stretch the front of the body, strengthen the muscles necessary for scapular stabilization and back extension, ideal posture will be restored along with pain relief and joy in movement.
This paper presents the case study of my 16 year old step-daughter named Hortense CHAMPY. She was diagnosed with scoliosis at the age of 14. As a result of this painful spinal condition she has to wear what we call in France a ‘corset’ for a minimum of 8 hours a day, usually in the evenings and throughout her sleep. She has regular sessions with a physio who gives her a series of movements and also makes necessary adjustments to her corset. This plastic apparatus looks like an armour which keeps her torso tight and straight in supine and seated positions. During her two-month school holidays last summer I decided to prepare a Pilates program aimed at relieving her from the pain she feels almost daily particularly in the shoulder region. Pilates exercises have been used by physiotherapists and Pilates instructors to strengthen weak core muscles and stretches the part of the trunk which is tight due to the S curve of the spine. Pilates is considered very safe and ultimately very e"ective in giving some control back to people by educating them on how to work in flexion and extension. Hortense’s case was a great way to learn more about this condition. First I proceeded to give her an evaluation based on my observations during her Roll-down. I previously had a good look at her X-rays to check how bad her S curve was and which was her weaker side. Attached are some copies of her X-Rays taken at di"erent stages of her treatment.
The ankle joint (talocrural articulation) is a hinge type of synovial joint. It is located between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the superior part of the talus. A sprain to the lateral ankle occurs when the lateral ligaments are exposed to a stretching force that exceeds their tensile strength. The recurrence rate for lateral ligament ankle sprains has been reported to be as high as 80%. Current research shows that complex interactions between altered joint mechanics and functional control patterns result in chronic instability of the ankle. X is a 27 year old female who 3 weeks ago sustained an inversion ankle sprain during a surfing lesson. On further questioning X reports a history of chronic ankle instability. Her BASI Pilates program has been devised to improve ankle stability and range of motion. It also aims to holistically build knowledge and strength in regards to postural muscles and proprioception.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following concepts: How congenital Pes Planus or flat feet cause compensatory rotation in the tibia and other mechanical stressors in the legs, leading to pain and predisposing to injury. Also investigated is the possibility of developing an exercise routine that will minimize the negative effects of this condition and/or need for invasive procedures. Despite the significant incidence of this condition, the pathophysiology is still debated. This paper will attempt to show a possible exercise plan and rehabilitation for treatment for less-severe malformations whether it be for the congenital condition or for acquired Pes Planus in adults.
Tennis is a complex, physically enduring sport that requires a substantial amount of core strength as well as full body power, agility, balance, range of motion, and stamina. The Pilates method is a natural form of exercise that integrates concentration, coordination, precision, and control to achieve mental and physical strength and balance. The Pilates method is also an efficient exercise modality for developing core strength and flexibility. Sport-specific Pilates has recently gained popularity for rehabilitative purposes, prevention of sports injuries, and improved functional movements. Pilates is an effective means for improving the tennis player body by improving muscular balance, agility, power, strength, and range of motion through a series of repertoire programmed for individual needs. Most importantly for the shoulder joint, greater balance and flexibility improves a tennis player body by promoting safe injury recovery and a reduction of risk to injury.
This paper aims to explore the benefits of Pilates in regards to the senior population. A special focus is given to the condition knows as myopathy. A description of common senior ailments and an analysis of myopathy is followed by a specific case study. Through this man’s example and his proposed Pilates exercise routine, it is clear that Pilates represents one of the best methods of exercise for him, and this special population as a whole.
This research paper offers information on Shoulder Impingement Syndrome. It will provide some basic knowledge about the anatomy around the shoulder of the shoulder needed to understand Shoulder Impingement Syndrome. The causes of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome are anything which causes narowing of the sub-acromial space will cause the tendon and bursa to become impinged this is caused by repetitive overhead activites or sports such as netball, softball or other throwing sports. The shoulder can also become impinged by household activities like cleaning and hanging the washing. (Walker, 2007) The management of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome has two phases. The first phase is reducing symptoms in the acute phase when movement is limited and pain levels are high. The second phase focuses on rehabilitation and return to normal function. (Core Physio, 2011) The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body with a wider range of motion than other joints. Unfortunately, this flexibility makes the shoulder particularty susceptible to injuries including impingment, misalignment, and rotator cuff injuries. (Walker 2007) BASI Pilates block system can help rehabilitate and help return to normal function with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome. Using the block system can help to create good alignment and correct shoulder mechanics to strengthen and stabilize the upper body. (Isacowitz 2007) By improving the ability to regain a range of motion and perform exercises in good alignment and using good body mechanics people with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome are likely to prevent future injury while building strength and stability in the shoulder.
My son Hadrien is a 15 year old boy who has always had a slight lower back hyperlordosis and, lately, has developed a kyphosis in his upper back. Before things worsen and cause any damage to his spine, I want to help Hadrien work out in a way that focuses on re-aligning his spine, strengthening his core as well as his weak muscles, and stretching the tight ones. This research paper presents a BASI Pilates strengthening, stretching and lengthening reconditioning program that aims at correcting my son's postural deviations, protecting his spine and...boosting his self-esteem!
La práctica de cualquier deporte puede sobrecargar diferentes partes del cuerpo dependiendo del deporte que se esté ejecutando, desencadenando patologías en el tejido conectivo por sobreuso, entre las que se encuentra la tendinitis de Aquiles en atletas y como hace referencia el presente documento en los practicantes de triatlón.
A continuación se encuentra una propuesta para el manejo de esta patología con la técnica de Pilates, buscando desarrollar el balance del cuerpo en términos de fuerza y flexibilidad global con mayor énfasis en un trabajo para las extremidades inferiores, mejorando la conciencia corporal y evitando la presentación de nuevas lesiones en las extremidades del cuerpo.
This paper considers a case study of a pregnant client in the 3rd trimester and includes a Pilates conditioning program based on the BASI block system. It includes an anatomical description and notes changes away from ideal posture. It also includes details of contraindications and specific issues associated with pregnant clients. The paper considers: "should a new client start Pilates when pregnant if tehy have never done Pilates before?" The paper concludes that: As clients bodies will tend away from ideal lignment maintaining good posture should be a primary goal, exercises should be modified as bodies alter during pregnancy, clients and instructors should be aware of conditions specific to pregnancy, if pregnant clients are starting Pilates for the first time routines should be safe and very controlled, and clients should probably get the "all clear" from a doctor first, the BASI "whole body" approach to Pilates should work well for pregnant clients, especially with strong emphasis on individual needs and changes.
I did my case study on myself. I am a 30-year-old female with a 51-degree left lumbar scoliosis. I experienced back pain on a daily basis. I knew I needed to do exercises to strengthen my back, but the typical gym exercises did not appeal to me. When I started doing Pilates, I fell in love with it right away and saw the potential benefits for my back. I worked with an instructor who was focused on helping me achieve good alignment instead of accepting my crooked body as normal. I no longer experience back pain on a regular basis and my back is much stronger and more flexible.
Adhesive Capsulitis a.k.a. "Frozen Shoulder" is a condition that effects the health and agility of the shoulder joint. The symptoms include stiffening of the joint, decreased range of motion, searing pain, loss of shoulder function, postural issues and loss of sleep. There are many theories but no known causes for the disorder. 2% of the population seems to be affected and most are women between the ages of 40-60. There are many medical treatments, most of which seem costly and ineffective. The condition seems to mysteriously disappear after 2-3 years, however, there are often residual effects. I, myself, was affected with Frozen Shoulder for approximately 6 months until I began and finished the BASI Pilates CTTC. During the 4 month training and the necessary exercise regimen requirement, the symptoms melted away leaving me pain free with approximately 96% of my range of motion returned.
La displasia se define como una deformidad ósea estructural que afecta el desarrollo adecuado del cuerpo. Existen diferentes clasificaciones de esta enfermedad entre ellas la displasia metafisiaria, la cual es producida por una alteración de hueso endocondral, haciendo que los ejes del hueso cambien, causando alteraciones musculares y estructurales importantes. Se realizo un programa BASI de 24 semanas, para una mujer de 34 años con diagnostico de displasia metafisiaria de cadera sin manejo oportuno, con alteración importante de rangos de movimiento y dificultad para la marcha. Se estableció una frecuencia de 2 a 3 clases/ semana, duración de 1 hora y en forma progresiva. Al finalizar el programa (6 meses), se evidencio cambio significativo de rangos de movimiento, pricipalmente abducción y rotaciones de la cadera. Se observo una mejoría en fases de marcha (moviemiento amplios, fluidos y controlados).
Many jobs today require us to be in a fixed state of flexion or in a rounded forward position for hours on end. Then after spending an entire work day in this position we spend our leisure time in this position as well. When a body works in a fixed or semi-fixed position for endless periods of time poor posture results from certain muscles tightening up or shortening while others lengthen and become weak. Risk factors for poor posture include job stress, repetition, force and strain. Incorporating a comprehensive pilates program using the BASI block system I will address the body as a whole, but at the same time provide a framework with emphasis on correcting scapular elevation and increasing thoracic extension endurance.
The American population is shifting from young to old as indicated by comparing population statistics in the United States from the year 2000 to 2010 where we observed a 31.5% increase in the number of individuals in the 45 to 64 age group and a 15.1% increease in the number of individuals in the 65 and older age group.. As men and women age we can observe that there is a tendency for their posture to suffer, their lower backs to ache and their bellies to grow outward as a result of the effects of gravity on their bodies over the years and an increase in a sedentary lifestyle. A regular practice of Pilates provides a plausible antidote to the consequences of aging by foucusing on a strong, stable and flexible spine and increase strength in core muscles around the abdomen, lower back, pevic floor and upper leg muscles. The net result for American men and wormen in the 50 to 80 year old age bracket for example is that their oveall health and well-being will improve, they will possess an increase in stability and balance with a corresponding reduction in risk of trips and falls and improved posture and a reduction in lower back aches. Moreover, the bonus for men and women that practice Pilates regularly and become truly aware of their bodies will notice that the 10 principles of Pilates will transcend from the studio or gym and follow them into their everyday lives. They become more aware of their actions, they achieve balance in their lives, they breathe deeply, they concentrate fully, they center themselves, they gain control of their everyday actions, they are more efficient with their time and energy, they flow throughout the day, they are more precise in their movements and they are in harmony with nature.
This research looks at the exclusive benefits that Pilates can lend to riding. Riding requires a specific set up musculature and the ability to control this set of muscles, knowing when to ‘turn on’ the right muscles and ‘turn off’ the wrong ones, as to ride efficiently without wasting energy or effort. In order to understand the benefits of Pilates to riders, one must look at the muscles that are recruited the most during riding as to address specific needs of riders. This research draws upon books and articles written by experienced riders who use Pilates as a tool to enhance their riding skills. These authors also happen to be experienced Pilates instructors, so they understand the principles of Pilates and how to apply them to riding. The information presented by these authors shows that a regular Pilates practice not only helps the rider be ore aware of what they are doing on the horse and becoming more ‘centered’, but it also helps to reduce risk of future injury by increasing stability, flexibility, and balance.
Diastasis recti is a separation of the outermost abdominal muscles. When these muscles separate, the connective tissue (linea alba) joining these muscles stretches sideways. This can lead to a weak core and back pain in a lot of cases. Through the correct Pilates exercises and movement patterns this separation can be reduced and many times closed altogether. While diastasis recti can occur in any person it is very common among postnatal women and must be addressed before more damage is done. I am experiencing diastasis recti now and have decreased the amount of separtaion thru Pilates. I will discuss the exercises that should be avoided and the ones that are helpful. Doing exercises incorrectly can cause a further separtation and that is why it is important to be careful with what exercise you do and how you do them.
This paper discusses how Pilates can contribute to the neuromuscular re-education of two core muscles: the deep fibers of the quadratus lumborum and the psoas. Having been diagonosed with Ankylosing Spondylitis 10 years ago, the autoimmune disease has caused inflammation of my left sacroiliac joint. The surrounding muscles, specifically the erector spinae and superficial fibers of the quadratus lumborum became overused and tight as a protective mechanism. Over time these muscles pulled the spine into functional scoliosis and restricted the core muscles, specifically the deep fibers of the quadratus lumborum and psoas, from working properly. With the help of Joanne Macza, a phyical therapist, and exercises from the Body Arts and Science International (BASI) Pilates repertorie, I was able to retrain these particular core stabilizers. I will also discuss how Pilates can further assist in combating the longterm prognosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.
During my practice period as a student Pilates teacher, I was blessed with the opportunity to work with Therese, who has Down Syndrome. For six months I paid weekly visits to her home, euipped with mats, elastic/ thera bands, a yoga and beach ball, magic rings, and (by far the most invaluable tool) my brain. Therese was encumbered with a variety of physical issues commonly associated with Down Syndrome. Working with any individual suffering from such problems would hae been challenging. With Therese, there was the additional element of her mental condition, which rendered verbal cues virtually null. It took a combination of in-depth research on her condition, a comprehensive knowledge of the Pilates exercises, and creative problem-solving, to develop a conditioning program that suited Therese's needs. This paper outlines my work with Therese, to be used as a case study for a Pilates approach to Down Syndrome. It includes diagrams and descriptions of her pathology, as well as detailed explanations of how I adapted the BASI exercieses to support this wonderful client.
This paper attempts to explain how practicing in a Pilates regimen regularly can benefit someone suffering from a spinal condition known as scoliosis. The paper will address this condition by explaining what it is, and giving some statistics about how many people suffer from it. Lastly, I will design an exercise program that will include exercises from the classical BASI Pilates repertory that can benefit someone with scoliosis. My goal for the sample class will be, (over time with continued practice) to reduce pain caused from the condition, as well as increase the overall functionality of a person suffering from this spinal condition.
CrossFit is a fitness regimen that has been in existence for over 13 years, but has only recently exploded in popularity. The program focuses on developing well rounded, fit individuals using workouts that are constantly varied, have high-intensity, and stress functional movements. These workouts (or WODS as they are know in the CrossFit community) are composed of elements from Olympic weightlifting, gymnastics, plyometrics, and various other disciplines. Squats are one of the most essential movements in CrossFit. Not only do athletes perform this motion in various Olympic lifts such as the overhead squat and squat clean, but “air squats” are often incorporated into the WODs as well. In order to successfully execute a squat in CrossFit emphasis is placed on making sure the hip crease falls below the knee while stabilizing the midline of the body. This technique, which requires a deeper squat than most people are accustomed to can be difficult to achieve for those who have weak gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles. Pilates movements provide an excellent way to strengthen and develop these muscles in order to achieve the proper squat form and prevent injury.
Back pain is among one of the most common ailments experienced by individuals at some point in their lives. Research has shown that almost 80 percent of adults suffer or have suffered from back pain, most frequently felt in the lower back, or lumbar spine. The research in this paper focuses on spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis conditions. A fracture or defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebral body results in spondylolysis. When one vertebral body slips forward onto another, the condition is known as spondylolisthesis and is usually secondary to spondylolysis. Active individuals are more likely to be diagnosed with one, or both, of these back injuries. However, many individuals who have either, will never experience any symptoms or pain and in turn, never even know that they have a fracture or slip in the lower back. Strengthening and stretching of certain muscles will help to protect the lower back and provide relief for clients with these diagnoses. The following paper will provide a more in depth look at how Pilates can help facilitate lower back pain relief and prevent it altogether.
Cotero es el término utilizado en Colombia para referirse a las personas que trabajan cargando y descargando los vehículos pesados que recorren la mayoría del territorio nacional con distintas mercancías a varios destinos. Este es un empleo informal. Algunos cuentan con un servicio de salud subsidiado por el gobierno pero no están afiliados a un sistema que los cubra en riesgos profesionales. Y sí que corren riesgos. Entre los graves desórdenes musculo esqueléticos a los que están expuestos los coteros, debido al inadecuado manejo de cargas, se encuentra la escoliosis postural.
Cargar peso de un solo lado del cuerpo genera descompensaciones y hace que una parte de la espalda se fortalezca en detrimento de la otra. Para revertir esta condición, es necesario buscar el equilibrio a través del trabajo de la musculatura de la manera más equitativa posible, buscando elongación, alineación, buena postura y lo más importante una espalda saludable.
Pregnancy is a natural condition and exciting time in a woman’s life. It is a physically, mentally, and emotionally challenging experience. Being active throughout pregnancy, keeping healthy diet, exercising, and getting enough rest and relaxation, will make the journey much more pleasant and safe. Pilates is the perfect way to stay active during pregnancy. No experience is necessary; the mother can start at any stage during her pregnancy. Pilates movements are modified for each trimester and are tailored to the personal needs of each mother, allowing the mother to feel safe and secure about her workout.
Life in the 21st century is decidedly sedentary. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 48% of adults meet the Physical Activity Guidelines. Between working, driving, eating, and sitting in front of the television, the average adult spends approximately 50 to 70 percent of their time sitting. Office workers are overstressed, out of shape and slouched in front of a computer or at the television for a majority of the day and as result are suffering from a myriad of health problems and postural deviations. In addition to serious health risks such as increased risk of obesity, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, cancer and depression, the repetitive poor posture causes the body to become severely misaligned. The hip flexors, hamstrings, and psoas become short and tight while the abdominals, pelvic floor and gluteal muscles weaken. One of the primary faulty postures we see associated with adult professionals is rounded shoulders and upper back. This posture is characterized by kyphosis, the increased thoracic curve of the spine, stressed neck extensors with a forward head position, as well as elevated and forward scapulae with downward scapular rotation. Fortunately, we can begin to address some of these issues inside and outside of the workplace with a mindful Pilates program.
Degenerative Spondylolisthesis (DS) is Latin for “slipped vertebral body.” DS occurs when one or more vertebrae slips anteriorly, most frequently in the lumbar spine: L4-L5 and L5-S1. DS is more common in females than males, 3:1, and in people over the age of 50. The slipped vertebrae causes nerve compression, which generally leads to sciatic pain and weakness in the legs though true root damage is rare. Other common symptoms of DS are lower back pain, tight hamstrings, decreased flexibility in the lower back, and pain in back extension. Depending on the severity of the case, treatment options range from physical therapy, to epidural cortisone injection, to surgery. The focus of physical therapy is to promote healthy posture, increase the range of motion in the lumbar spine and hamstrings, and to strengthen core/abdominal muscles to better support the lumbar spine.
This paper will present the issue of low back pain and some of its causes and treatments including an in depth description of spinal fusion surgery. The objective is to demonstrate the importance of exercise for chronic low back pain sufferers and its efficacy in reducing pain. Controlled, progressive and safe exercises such as those used in the Basi Pilates Method are very effective in strengthening and developing core stabilizers to build a stable and supportive base for the spine. Increasing flexibility and range of motion also helps to avoid reinjures and take undue stress off of the axial skeletal system.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of Pilates and more specifically, how a BASI Block program can serve as an effective cross training program for amateur golfers. A golf swing is an asymmetrical movement that requires the on-demand recruitment of many different muscle groups throughout each phase. Core and pelvic stability, spinal flexibility, joint mobility and muscle balance are all key factors to improving a golfer’s overall performance and preventing injuries. This paper shall demonstrate how golfers can address these key factors by incorporating the functional movements of the Pilates method into their conditioning regimen.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is more than meets the eye. While a common diagnosis, it often goes mistreated due to the complexity involved in proper care. Patellar Malalignment, muscle imbalance, proper mechanics, age, and gender are all factors contributing to the severity and complication of the PFPS case. While it is true that PFPS is common in young female athletes it does not discriminate. Anyone with muscle imbalance and poor mechanics will at some point suffer from patellofemoral pain. This paper serves as an example of how to take an active female in her late twenties and rehabilitate using the BASI Block System.
After reading information from the Internet and anatomy books, it becomes very clear why Pilates is an incredibly effective treatment for an injury such as patellar subluxation. The Internet informed me on what muscle groups should be focused on to help strengthen the knee and create balance to prevent such an injury from occurring again. The Internet also provided suggestions on what other kind of treatment may help reduce swelling and inflammation of the knee such as Aleve, ice and electrical stimulation. The anatomy books gave me an understanding as to why certain muscles should be focused on during the treatment of patellar subluxation. Knowing which of these muscles are important and how they function makes it easier as a Pilates instructor to pick beneficial exercises and stretches. Understand how a problem originates, also helps in teaching a client how to make changes in their every day lives that will secure a lasting effect.
Brette Smith is a twenty-five year old female who developed a herniated disc between L4 and L5 while working as a grocery store cashier. I have been teaching her the Pilates repertoire to strengthen her abdominal and back muscles and thereby minimize the back pain that she feels in everyday life. Extreme lumbar flexion is contraindicated for herniated discs, so I have modified exercises accordingly and have used the BASI block system to give her a fully rounded and safe workout. In the discussion that follows I will describe a herniated disc with pictures, discuss the circumstances of her injury, why she started doing Pilates and what exercises I have used in each block to meet her fitness goals.
I have been fortunate enough to have had an extremely diverse career as a professional dancer, working in Classical and Contemporary dance Companies in both Europe and Australia, as well as having performed in the related area’s of Spanish dance, Tap dance and Musical theatre. My training has enabled me to work with many wonderful teachers who were inspiring, and knowledgeable, as well as being humorously insightful people. These influences have most certainly impacted on my work and development today. My current work as a Pilate’s Instructor, Dance teacher and private coach and my love of choreography and creativity have inspired me to focus my Research Paper on developing a program which endeavors to achieve “The Perfect Balance.”
This is an exploration of the exercises and benefits to soccer players from Pilates. The Pilates method offers an excellent supplement to the soccer players’ training. Pilates effectively works weak areas of the body through spring and body weight resistance. Many of the exercises also offer an active stretch, effectively allowing the athlete to build flexibility while at the same time adding strength. An effective Pilates routine must focus on building strength and flexibility in the hip adductors, back extensors, and hamstrings. These areas are crucial for improving performance on the soccer field while also helping to prevent injury. Exercises that work these three areas should be included in the Pilates routine for the soccer player without neglecting the work of the rest of the body. The benefits of Pilates for the soccer player are numerous and include, among others, improved strength, flexibility and agility.
Due to an automobile accident, I had an L5-S1 Disc Injury. Through many evaluations, imaging Physical Therapy, epidural injections, and surgery; a referral to Pilates played a vital role in my recovery when all odds were against me. Any individual with an injury or a past injury is a candidate for Pilates. The vast benefits such as highly skilled instrutors, programs specific to each individulas needs, streghtening, and balance to name a few that Pilates has to offer will only enhance ones ability to a healthy and balanced recovery.
No matter the activity, every person will have certain imbalances in the body. Whether you are sitting at a desk every day, playing tennis, going to a yoga class, or even if you are a new mom, these activities will influence on your muscles imbalances. As a ballet dancer, I have been doing the same movements for the majority of my life. Over the years, I repeatedy heard the same corrections about my posture that my ribs were splaying due to tightness in my back extensors, that there was not enough equal external rotation in both legs, and that there was uneven work in my spine due to my scoliosis. In this paper, I will discuss how I have designed a Pilates program through the BASI Block System to fix these imbalances and work in a more balanced manner, which ultimately leads to injury prevention.
Athletes are not limited to those found on a football field or in a gym; they can also be found on a racetrack testing pushing their bodies to extremes while controlling up to 10,000 horsepowered machines traveling at speeds over 300 miles per hour. Brittany Force is classified as one of these incredible athletes, as one of the youngest drivers of a nitro-burning Top Fuel dragster, the fastest accelerationg groung vehicle on the planet. Through research and interviews, we were able to understand what her body undergoes during a run down the racetrack and constructing a Pilates regime based on her athletic training to improve her performance behind the wheel.
Scoliosis refers to a lateral curvature of the spine and a corresponding rotation of the spine, which involves muscle imbalances associated not only with those muscles responsible for movement of the spine itself, due to the shortening and tightening of muscles on the concave side, and lengthening and stretching of the muscles on the convex side, but also muscles associated with the ribcage and the scapulae, the rectus abdominus, the chest, the hip flexors and extensors and the hip abductors and adductors. There may also be leg length discrepancy and a rotated and/or tilted pelvis. The rotational element of the spine can have a negative effect on the normal kyphotic and lordotic curves. In Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) the individual is still growing, and the curve may also be increasing. Thus the aim of the exercise program is to improve and restore muscle balance, mobility and function, and develop habits which will help her feel in control of her body.
The body build, shape, and posture of modern man is a form that evolved over millions of years based on man’s day-to-day activities at the time. Man’s evolution allowed for various types of new movements; however, none of man’s evolution accounted for eight waking hours of virtual non-movement. Unfortunately, office workers engage in exactly that type of unvarying position several hours each day. Typical office workers sit with their head facing a computer, and arms/hands outstretched over a keyboard and mouse. As a result, reports of neck and back pain are extremely common in today’s society. Such pain is partially due to recruitment of incorrect muscles to maintain this position; which is often accompanied by poor posture, asymmetry, and extreme lateral domination. With the help of Pilates, sufferers may cure these ailments and obtain peace of mind and a balanced body.
Today's modern workforce sits hunched over a computer for 8 to 10 hourse at a stretch, with increasing number of people reporting persistent neck pain, tight and frozen shoulders and even headaches. This is a serious issue that affects a large population yet somehow does not seem "serious" enough to encourage people to seek prompt treatment, until it is too late and the pain becomes chronic and debilitating. This paper looks to address the symptoms, causes and treatment (via an exercise program) of rounded shoulder syndrome.
Anxiety can be a word often used to describe a feeling taking place inside the human body; the tingling sensation stirring in your stomach, maybe your heart racing faster than normal, palms starting to sweat, or even your mind starting to race, not settling down. Many people may experience different types of anxiety on different levels. Some may need therapy, medication, or a relaxing meditation to ease their mind. It can be caused on a numerable amount of effects; it all boils down to the individual themselves and what triggers their anxiety attacks. Can a mind-body workout such as Pilates help calm the individual, bringing their anxiety levels down? Perhaps during the 60 minute workout the anxiety filled client can escape and dial into their body, however, after does their anxiety trigger back?
Approximately six weeks before I was scheduled to take my BASI final pratical exam, I experienced a knee injury while windsurfing. My MRI indicated that I had both a lateral and radial tear of the medial meniscus. My doctor recommended surgery but said that he saw no reason to keep me from taking my final as long as I protected the knee with a compression brace. Four days after my injury I was once again practicing for my exam. I was fortunate to be working the Shari Nyce, an experienced BASI instructor, who was careful to keep me from further aggravating my knee. After each session I would ice my knee till the pain subsided, I did this again before I went to bed and wore a knee brace to keep from hurting my knee while I slept. After two weeks of preparation for my test, my pain was significatly reduced and I was able to dispense with the icing. However I did continue to use the brace for exercise and sleeping. After I completed my BASI test, I continued to focus on stregthening my knee muscles. I was able to dispense with the knee brace and my pain diminished so much that I decided not to have the surgery.
In this paper I will discuss my journey from acute pain due to a displaced disc to my recovery in Pilates, without surgery or the use of narcotics. I will lead you through my initial diagnosis and the different methods of therapy I used as I tried in vain to recover using my natural body. The pain was crippling both physically and mentally and I was told most back patient surgery patients had surgery because they could no longer stand the pain. If they could have endured the pain for an indefinite length of time, they may have recovered on their own. I will explain why I made the desision not to use narcotics, my stuggle with whether or not to have surgery, and how I found Pilates, and ultimately, recovery.
Riding is not just a sport for us as equestrians, it's a passion, an obsession. It takes years to train, months to prepare, a life time to perfect... Dealing with a 1200 pound unpredictable animal can be quite dangerous for the rider especially when horses spook. That's why we, as riders, should be strong, balanced, focused, enduring and alert not only to accomplish our riding goals but also to be able to contine riding until the very end of our life time, yet everytime we get in the saddle we risk our lives. On the other hand, strength, flexibility and endurance are the most important things that determine our success. If we are strong, our horses are strong, if we are flexible, our horses are flexible, if we have muscular balance, our horses have muscular balance and so on. So in this research paper, I will point out some postural faults of equestrians which they acquire from hours of riding and the things that can be done to correct those faults for the sake of their daily lives. I wil also mention the benefits of Pilates to help your client achieve his/her equestrian goals by providing them the appropriate exercises.
Every tennis player at any age and skill level wants to play high-level tennis without pains and injuries. If you are a tennis player who strives for improvement but cannot train as hard as you wish to, because you are afraid of injuries, Pilates is for you. Tennis is a particularly sport because it exercises mostly one side of the upper body, often resulting in muscle imbalances in the back, shoulder, knee and elbow. Pilates is to correct muscular imbalances between player’s dominant and non-dominant sides because these imbalances can lead to injuries and poor performance. We, as the Pilates instructors, must pay attention to flexibility, strength and endurance of the muscles to prevent injuries and to provide increase in the performance. A specific Pilates program for tennis players can play a key role in preventing common injuries resulting from muscle imbalances. I will point out the muscular imbalances that may play role in causing injuries and will compose a specific program for a non-injured tennis player based on the BASI BLOCK SYSTEM that have a goal of both preventing injuries and enhancing the player’s performance
“The power and protection offered by the abdominal muscles makes them the most important muscles in the body. While every golfer uses their abdominal muscles to some degree, learning to use these muscles more effectively is very important to boosting performance.” (Beere, "Thread: Strong Abdominal Muscles: A Key to Better Golf." Web. 30 Apr. 2012.) I have chosen to focus mainly on abdominal muscles and back extensors, as these are most important to the golfers posture through the back swing and follow through. The golf swing incorporates many different parts of the body, so using the BASI block method to develop a program for my case study is a great way to ensure that I will cover every muscle group but tailor it to fit his golf swing specifically. I believe my research will show that Pilates can be a very helpful tool for most golfers to improve how far and hard they hit the ball, but also for control and stamina throughout a round of golf.
Every year millions of Americans suffer from low back pain as a result of bulging discs. This study determined whether or not Pilated is an effective method for the treatment of low back as a result of bulging discs in the lumbar spine. A Pilates program designed specifically for the alleviation of low back pain was implemented for a client who currently has bulging discs and chronic low back pain. The program consisted of thirty one hour long private sessions over the course of fifteen weeks. After the completion of the conditioning program the client reported complete alleviation of their back pain, improved posture and increased range of motion in the spine.
The purpose of this research is to determine if Pilates exercises utilizing the Body Arts and Science International (BASI) block system can correct muscle imbalances in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), a very common pathology seen in rehabilitation. In this case study, Beatrice a 37-year-old very physically active women presents and acute episode of PFPS in the right knee. Beatrice works out daily without concern for correct body alignment. She recently committed to an 8 week (once a week) BASI conditioning program. The initial physical assessment indicated need for conditioning and strengthening of the hips and pelvis muscles. Over the course of her training the pain to her right knee decreased after each session. Beatrice applied Pilates principles to her daily routine. At the end of the BASI program she accomplished proper body alignment and symmetrical strengthening of the whole body as a welcome addition to her fitness regimen.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the many benefits gained by using the BASI Block System after recovering from a microdiscectomy and partial laminectomy performed on the L5 S1 disc. In this particular case study, Kurt had been recreationally active up until he was 32. A mountain biking accident in his late 20’s caused the initial damage (most likely a bulging disc) due to the impact on a rocky surface. As time and comfort level would allow, he continued his physical activity. Mostly likely, normal life activities caused the disc herniation four years later, which required the surgery. Kurt came to me two and half years after his surgery (age 34). All activities he enjoyed in the past were no longer a part of his routine. Even some of the simplest tasks or forms of exercise caused pain in his lumbar spine. Kurt’s goal was to gain his core strength back and hopefully live pain free. Using the BASI Block System, Kurt gained strength and mobility, but equally as important he gained an understanding of good posture and how to support and protect his spine performing daily tasks (e.g., yard work, exercise).
Growing up in coastal Southern California, surfing has been and will remain a very prevalent hobby amongst our community. This sport has captured the passion and love of many, despite the possible outcomes or accidents that can result from surfing, whether it be the calming serenity surfing can offer or the intense adrenaline rush one can experience. While surfing offers many positive effects for the body, it can also potentially result in a wide array of injuries and ailments. Pilates can be of great benefit to surfers in many different ways ranging from strengthening core muscles, to correcting imbalanced alignment, and even focusing a surfer’s breathing and mental state. I chose to use myself as the case study for this subject. After years of surfing, both recreationally and competitively, and training my body to accommodate the sport, I suffer from a slight case of Lumbar Hyperlordosis. This may be a result of muscular imbalances due to the position that is held most often in surfing: paddling. Similarly correlating, lower back pain is one of the most common injuries encountered by surfers.
This paper presents a case study of a particular client to illustrate an integrated mind/body approach to clients with chronic pain. Included is an excerpt from recent neurological research regardinig "mirror neurons" which supports the claim of many Pilates practitioners that the awareness, breathing, centered focus and compassion that we, as teachers, bring to the Pilates session are important factors in helping the client truly internalize their Pilates practice- replacing pain-producing patterns with healthy patterns of movement and posture.
The Pilates exercise technique offers a balance body which is strong and flexible with a flat stomach, balanced legs and a strong back. The effects are more than just physical: you will feel revitalized, confident, invigorated and flexible through a new sense of well being. Additionally Pilates training could be unique for each and everyone of us. This paper will deal with a paraolympic athlete of the sitting volley. It’s about a man in his thirties, well built with a mutilated left leg. As he used to be a swimmer, he is very fit due to his daily training. However two years ago he stopped swimming and started training in the sitting volley. As a result, the lower half of his body got neglected. The quadriceps of his left leg became atrophic and it differentiated from his right leg. In this project, our goal will be to support the lower half of the body as well as to stabilize the prosthetic limb. The exercises that will be proposed will aim at the strengthening and the flexibility of the body as a whole.
This study applies Pilates as a conditioning program for a client with acetabular dysplasia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. It provides an overview of acetabular dysplasia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, as well as the client’s experience with these conditions. The Body Arts and Science International Block System was the backbone of the conditioning program for the client, with special attention to the hip and ankle joints. The client achieved short-term goals of increased body awareness, stability, control, and strength. Long-term goals include increased flexibility, strength, muscle balance, decreased pain, and improved function. Overall, Pilates is an effective conditioning program for individuals with acetabular dysplasia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth to reduce joint pain and stiffness, strengthen the muscles around the joint, and increase flexibility, endurance, and stability.
Pilates is a safe and effective exercise approach in maintaining health and fitness for pregnant women throughout the entire pregnancy. The research indicates that Pilates exercises enable the expectant mother to maintain good posture, strength, alleviate recurrent aches and pains, and improve the mother’s awareness of her changing body to avoid musculoskeletal dysfunction and injury. Pilates is appropriate to begin at any stage of pregnancy and it does not matter if one has never had any previous experience. Modifications are an essential component of a Pilates program to allow the pregnant client to exercise in a comfortable and safe environment while keeping the intent of the given exercise. Barring any contraindications, pregnant women can benefit greatly from building core strength to support a more comfortable pregnancy and delivery.
Recent research has consistently shown that depression is rarely due to a single event or condition. Rather, the development of depression is a complicated cognitive, behavioral, hormonal and biochemical process. Genetic factors may create a predisposition or vulnerability in the person for depression. It is clear that depression, like many other illnesses tends to run in families. For example, a child with one parent with depression has a 10 to 13 percent increased chance of developing depression (Babyak & Herman). Whether this vulnerability results in depression may depend on the person's life stress, early family life, coping strategies and social support. Further studies have provided evidence of the value of exercise in reducing depression. For example, in many studies depressed patients who underwent exercise training have reported significant reductions in depressive symptoms compared with patients receiving other forms of therapy. The effects of Pilates exercise, specially, have been beneficial in some case studies due to its mind body relationship. We know now that exercise in general contributes to changes in the brain. According to studies done by Carro and Trejo, when laboratory rats were injected with neurotoxins into the hippocampus of the brain, the subjects that were exercised everyday produced “Insulin-Like Growth Hormone I” which diffused the effects of the toxin on the brain versus the animals that were sedentary. “We now show that exercise provides a remarkable protection against brain insults of different etiology and anatomy. Laboratory rodents were submitted to treadmill running (1 km/d) either before or after neurotoxin insult of the hippocampus, or the brainstem, or along progression of inherited neurodegeneration affecting the cerebellum. In all cases, animals show recovery of behavioral performance compared with sedentary ones, i.e., intact spatial memory in hippocampal-injured mice, and normal or near to normal motor coordination in brainstem.”
Fatigue posture, also known as "sway back" or "slouch posture", is relatively common in certain groups such as models and dancers. Over time, this posture creates a kyphotic curve in the tho-racic spine, a lordotic curve in the cervical spine, and varying degrees of flatness in the lumbar spine. A posterior tilted pelvis and hyperextended hips are key components, allowing the person with this posture to "hang" in their ligaments. In this way the skeleton self-corrects against grav-ity without needing to recruit the musculature to remain upright, therefore using very little en-ergy and earning the name “fatigue”. Pilates plays a key role in bringing the body back into ideal alignment, which in turn al-lows the spine to once again act as the natural shock absorber that it is meant to be when the natural curves of the spine are present/normalized. Strength is returned to lengthened and/or un-used muscle groups, while allowing shortened, overworked muscles to relax and lengthen. Mus-cles once again take over their natural roles and no longer need to compensate for weakness in other areas of the body.
I was given the opportunity to teach Pilates to young dancers at the Gustafson School of Dance shortly after this training course began. The timing was ideal as it gave me the opportunity to practice what I was learning on two small groups of dancers ages nine to thirteen. Although I went into teaching the class with confidence I quickly realized I had my work cut out for me. Not only did I have to keep the students attention and monitor their form, I had to find ways to make the class fun. My research began immediately, and I was able to find helpful information on techniques for teaching young dancers the benefits of Pilates.
Controlology was the term Joseph Pilates used to describe his body of work. One of the tenets of Pilates is ‘control.’ We all like to control our environment and our bodies. There is one thing, however, that no person can control: time. Time passes, and we age. As we age, our bodies naturally go through many physiological changes. Pilates can help to mitigate or delay many of these changes by increasing our strength, flexibility, mobility and balance. As an instructor of Pilates, however, we need to be aware of the common limitations encountered with seniors so as best to help them maintain their health and not cause injuries. This paper will describe the benefits of Pilates for seniors as well as the precautions and considerations that should be observed when working with this segment of our population.
The human hip, which is a very stable joint, is a complex and intricate series of muscles, tendons and ligaments. It is comprised of a ball and socket mechanism, where the head of the hip bone connects with the cup shaped acetabulum on the pelvis. For a professional dancer, the hip must maintain extreme flexibility and requires excellent balance, strength and coordination. Hip pain is a common problem in dancers, a hyper mobile joint that is used repetitively with extreme range of motion will wear out more quickly because the cartilage under goes unusual amounts and types of friction. This case study of a retired injured female dancer shows by going back to basics with Pilates you can retrain your mind and body that "a no pain no gain" mentality isn't necessarliy the best for pain-free positive results.
"Flat feet" is a medical condition in which arch of the foot is not present and the sole is completely in touch with the floor. "Flexible flat feet" is similar to flat feet except arch of the foot is present when the foot does not bear a weight. When sitting and the foot is not touching the floor, natural curve of the foot is visible on a person with flat feet medical condition. Flexible flat feet is common in early childhood as well as in elders. Flexible flat feet condition disappears as the muscles on the foot and lower leg develops in childhood until the age of 5-6. In the elder population, flexible flat feet occur if muscle strength and flexiblity degraded. Sole of the foot is in touch with the floor and this may accompanied by knees coming together. Sometimes with the femur medial rotation postual imbalances get worse. Center of gravity moves towards the forward of the body, pelvis tilts anteriorly, upper body extends back to compensate and lordosis condition can be seen in the posture. Postural deviations as well as absence of the arch of the foot cause chronic lower leg and foot pain. Walking with flat feet puts pressure on posterior lower leg muscles and tendons, which create pain due to overuse and decreased flexiblitly. Flexible flat feet in mature population is not a condition that can be fixed however, symptoms can be eased by working on muscles on and around the foot. This research focuses on the muscles and muscle groups that are effective in flexible flat feet medical condition and a Pilates program to ease symptoms caused by flexible flat feet.
In reviewing the medical records and obstacles that my client has been presented with, both trochanteric bursitis and supination of the foot are difficult to deal with and even more so to treat. During my observations, I saw many improvements. We saw major improvement in the movement of her toes, abililty to keep her ankle straight and even more blood flow to her foot. I think that Pilates will be great success for her in the challenges she currently has. As far as the trochanteric bursitis, that might take a little longer based on her pain management.
Research has demonstrated that non-surgical methods for treating lumbar disc herniation are just as effective as surgical methods over the long term. Common ailments and symptoms of a patient with a lumbar disc herniation are low back pain, radiating pain down the legs, and a worsening posture including a reduction in the natural lumbar spine curvature, scoliosis, and unilateral slightly flexed and externally rotated hip and knee joints. Although physical therapy is effective, a method that focuses on correcting alignment, posture, and improving the strength and endurance of synergistic muscles is preferred for successful treatment of a herniation. Because Pilates addresses these specifically, it is the most appropriate method to treat my client who has a lumbar spine herniation. A timeframe of 10 weeks will be used for this program which will mainly target the Transverse Abdominals and Multifidus muscles while avoiding contraindicated movements.
The TRAM flap procedure is often considered the gold standard in breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Its benefits include more natural appearance and feel and greater safety than implants. During the TRAM flap procedure the surgeon detaches all, or a portion of, the rectus abdominus, along with abdominal fatty tissues, and transplants these tissues to the mastectomy site where they are used to form a new breast mound. Research shows that the TRAM procedure may result in reduced abdominal strength and function for the patient, including reductions in trunk flexion strength and rotation. Scarring crosses the lower abdomen from ASIS to ASIS. Due to the insertions of the obliques and transversus along the linea alba where the rectus abdominus has been cut, weakness in these muscles may also be seen. In this case study, I worked with a breast cancer survivor who underwent the TRAM procedure 7 years ago and who had not undertaken any core strengthening exercises since the surgery. In order to build core strength, I used various fundamental Pilates exercises on the mat and apparatus. I noted that overall core strength was similar to other previously inactive beginner clients and that focused work developing a baseline of strength was needed before deficits related to her surgery would be apparent.
Objective: The study assessed the benefits of Pilates training to alleviate pain caused by the compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle. Methods: A protocol of seven weekly one hour Pilates exercises utilizing the Reformer, Cadillac, and Mat. Focus of the work centered on the muscles and bones of the lower back, posterior and anterior legs. Results: After the first two weeks, subject was free of any sciatic pain for five days. When pain returned, client was able to recognize what triggered the flare-up and shifted her patterns of movement to abate the discomfort. There was a reoccurrence of chronic pain in the fifth week due to habitual patterns and work-related stress that required massage to remedy. From the seventh week on piriformis syndrome discomfort was rarely experienced.
The Northwest is a piece of heaven for those who enjoy outdoor activities. In just a short time, one can drive to oceans and to mountains. The weather in this area is mild all year round so that mountain climbing and hiking can be enjoyed during the heat of summer as well as the middle of winter. Hiking is common in this region, from experienced mountain climbers to inexperienced hikers that simply want to enjoy nature. However, this seemingly leisurely activity can cause wear and tear to the back, hips, knees, and ankle joints, similarly to any other aggressive sport. Therefore, it is critical for hikers to condition their body in preparation of different levels of hiking. The majority of wild terrain is not paved, straight, or flat ground. Rather, wild terrain is typically covered in mud, tree roots, and rocks, and requires a hiker to carefully maneuver through slippery roots and rocks to avoid a dangerous fall. Hikers often experience pain in their lower legs and knees, caused by overuse of their knees in such conditions. Continuing to hike in such conditions can cause greater damage to joints and ligaments. Pain and damage to joints and ligaments may be avoided through regular conditioning of the entire body by practicing Pilates using weight resistance in order to strengthen and stretch proper muscles and to protect joints. Core muscles are the stabilizers for any movement, and by increasing the strength of these muscles, hikers can increase their balance and avoid high impact on a particular joint group, which is often the cause of injury. In addition, Pilates can assist in developing better posture and muscular balance for the body to function efficiently.
Genu recurvatum means (L.genu, knee + re-curvous, bent back) "back-knee" as the knees curve backward in the sagittal plane. The knees extend "beyond straight", creating a convexity of the legs posteriorly. It is more common in females than males. This hyperextension of the knees is thought by some to complement the aesthetic of the legs with pointed (plantar flexed) feet. In dancers, this often indictates a general predisposition towards ligamentous laxity. Trouble arises when the dancer "locks" back in to his or her knees, or has an extreme amount of flexibility in the knee joint (looser ligaments equals a significant amount of hyperextension) and therefore places undue stress on the knee joints and lower legs rather than employing muscule strength for correct postural stance. Hyperextension of the knee can put excessive stress onto other strucutres in and around the knees, which can become painful, and/ or create further injuries. The principals and repertoire of the BASI Pilates method can be used to create more stability and control of the muscles and ligaments surrounding the knees.
The research conducted in this study for this particular client involved finding a pilates program that he can utilize to regain his golfing ability following a shoulder injury and surgery and to improve his overall golf game. The first meeting with this client involved learning what his initial injury was, the surgery that was done to repair it and what his specific goals were. Speaking with his doctor and physical therapist was the next step I took in order to better understand the extent of the injury and the client's exact limitations. After learning that my client had undergone a Bankart repair for chronic shoulder dislocation, it allowed me to begin research on his specific condition. I began reading about the causes of shoulder dislocation which helped me in deciding which specific exercises would be most beneficial in helping my client to regain stability and strength in his shoulder as well as improve his golf game. We began the 3 times per week program with doing exercises that would strenghten and stretch his shoulder region without moving the joint. As my client became stronger, we added resistant and more exercises that would strengthen his internal and external rotators as well as rotation exercises so that he would gain more mobility in his shoulders. Focusing on the mind-body connection and the importance of core strength was important for this client to improve his golf game so we added many exercises that would allow him to improve his overall golf game.
In this study, I addressed the issues of one person who is a marial artist and some general approches to working with martial artists. The included case study is of a martial artist who has "military" posture with an anterior curve in his lower and middle thoracic spine. After addressing his postural issues, I discuss the following areas which are important in using Pilates for cross-training martial artists: lateral flexion and rotation, open and closed chain work with core stability and motion, unilateral work, speed and breathing.
This project offers information on the structure and movement of the shoulder and using the BASI Pilates Block to strengthen and stabilize the upper body, improving the ability to regain range of motion and perform exercises in good alignment to prevent injury in the shoulder. Proper alignment of the scapula flat on the thoracic spine and holding the humerus in the glenoid cavity is essential to scapula stability for proper activiation of the rotator cuff. Scapula thoracic instability is the cause of most shoulder injuries, as many exercises are done without correct position of the scapula while moving. It's important to improve activation of the upper and lower traps and the serratus anterior to prevent stressing the rotator cuff and upper thoracic spine. It is important not to depress or abduct the scapula; and keep ribs connected and the serratus activated, wrapping around the front of the body. Using these cues while performing Pilates exercises for the arm, shoulder and upper back and body help to insure good body mechanics and prevents of injury while building strength and stability in the shoulder.
This paper considers the common knee problem of patellofemoral pain syndrome. It begins with a generalized discussion of the anatomy of the knee joint followed by an overview of patellofemoral pain syndrome, including its symptoms, causes and medical treatment. Patellofemoral pain is further addressed in the context of a Pilates exercise program. A case study of a client suffering from knee pain medically diagnosed as patellofemoral pain syndrome is used to develop an appropriate rehabiliation and conditioning program selected from the Pilates repertoire. It is concluded that Pilates, as one component of a complete program of care, can be an effective and valuable aid in the treatment of patellofemoral pain.
Lumbar hyperlordosis is a faulty posture in which the curve of the lumbar spine is increased. This can be caused by a variety of behavioral or congenital movement patterns or predisposed anatomical structure; but in all cases of lordosis, the pelvis is always in an anterior tilt. The anterior tilt of the pelvis resonates to the muscles surrounding the pelvic complex, resulting in tight hip flexors and back extensors, and weak abdominals and hamstrings. Tariq has an average case of lumbar hyperlordosis, and exhibits all of its characteristics. The goal of his conditioning program is to reduce and possibly correct his lordosis of the lumbar spine. By targeting certain muscle groups, and varying the emphasis from strengthening to stretching, the propsed conditioning program will be of great assistance in finding better alignment and harmony throughout the body. The Pilates program is designed to help Tariq reach his fitness goals, while keeping his lumbar hyperlordosis the priority in the selection of exercises.
In this paper, we will explore the benefits of Pilates during pregnancy. Pilates in great for strengthening the pelvic floor which helps with childbirth and bladder control. The deep abdominal conditioning of the transverse abdominal muscles helps with pushing during labor and regaining abdominal strength post natal. Learning the breathing and relaxation techniques of Pilates teaches the pregnant woman to feel centered throughout pregnancy and in the delivery room. Posture assessment and strengthening keeps pregnant women stronger and taller as their belly grows and their center of gravity changes. The over all body conditioning and toning of Pilates keeps pregnant women stronger during labor, it helps them maintain a positive body-image before and after birth and it aids in a speedier recovery.
Osteonecrosis (ON) is the destruction (necrosis) of bone tissue (literally dead bone). It is a not uncommon, often progessive disease, caused by a decrease in the blood flow to a bone as a result of which the bone is unable to replace the cells that are dying off in the usual course of events. Because the bone cells cannnot be replaced (at leaset at a fast enough rate), the bone weakens, degenerates and may crack or collapse. Joint pain is the primary symptom. It is a chronic pain, usually occurring when standing, walking or litfing. The pain becomes worse as weight is put on the bones or joints. Other symptoms include joint stiffness and limitation of motion. ON affects approximately 20,000 new patients per year in the United States. Typically the patients are between 20 to 50 years old with the average age in the 30's.
This paper examines the spinal condition, scoliosis, and specifically how Pilates can be used to manage the condition and the steps needed to create a proper conditioning program for someone with scoliosis. Scoliosis is a condition where there is a lateral curvature in spine and tightness and weakness are developed on each side of the spine. Muscles imbalances are developed and Pilates is very valuable for this because it works througth the imbalances in the spine and body. Lynda Chalmers is a client that suffers from scoliosis and she is observed and put through a program to show what type of exerciese to do and the reasons for the exercises to create more balance in her spine and manage the condition. Pilates is a very beneficial program that benefits a number of conditions, works the body as a whole, and creates an unbelievable awareness and understanding in the body.
When one is trying to apply the mechanics of the ankle and foot to dance, there are several technique areas that deserve more discussion. One of these is the issue of achieving the desired aesthetics and placement in demi-point or pointe positions. Another issue is achieving desired foot placement when the knees bends, such as in plies. In ballet, still another important concern is the introduction of point work. The peroneus brevis shares a similar proximal line of pull to the peroneus longus, and so it also assists with ankle-foot plantar flexion and is a prime mover for foot eversion. The peroneals' line of pull also enables them to produce abduction of the forefoot, a motion used by dancers to create a beveled foot, a commonly used position in many ballet and some modern schools of dance. The use of the stirrup muscles for a proper function for inversion and eversion is crucial for ankle-foot action in dancing. This case study presents a corrective approach to strenght of the stirrup muscle to aid the many actions of the feet in a balanced manner. The surgical procedure was the right foot osteotomy 1st metatarsal, arthodesis 2nd digit right foot, arthosplasty right 3rd and 4th digits, tenotomy and capulatomy right 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsals phalengeal joints.
This paper has been prepared to assess whether or not the Body Arts and Science International (BASI) method of Pilates and specifically the block system thereof, is helpful in managing the pain associated with Endometriosis. I have chosen to work with Lee Selma, a 35 year old professional woman who was diagnosed with endometriosis at the age of 26. Desperately wanting to manager her pain without the use of harsh medications or surgery, she agreed to begin an extensive practice of the Body Arts and Science International method of Pilates in September 2009. Although balance of the entire body was paramount, attention was directed to specific exercises from the abdominal block, full body integration (1) block, the back extension block and the stretches block. As a result, Lee has seen a reduction in pain, and she's also become stronger, and more cognizant of her entire body as a whole.
The purpose of this paper was to validate the effectiveness of Pilates as the rehabilitation method for lessening recurrent pain associated with low back problems (LBP). An individual that suffered from low back pain (L4-S1 level) was submitted to an eight week Pilates program that consisted of two hourly sessions per week. A comprehensive measure analysis was carried out prior and after the program to identify and compare changes in the level of pain, activity limitation, both physical and psychological factors. According to the results, Pilates program proved to be effective in strenghtening back extensors, developing better core control and education the activation of Transverses Abdomenus (TA), which ultimately lead to decrease in daily activity limitations and, consequently, improved the overall psychological state. Additionally, a postitive change in energy level (vitality and vigor) has been recognized. Pilates training program appears to be a viable method of exercise in improving the management of LBP. Further research with larger sample is encouraged to further examine the effectiveness of Pilates for solving lower back problems and reducing associated pain.
Many people think that Joseph Pilates created Pilates for dancers or that he was a dancer himself, but this is not true. Pilates was first used to help the disabled and sick during WWI. Even though Pilates is for everyone, it can be especially useful to individuals who use their bodies as part of their daily lives or professions. Therefore, Pilates can play a key role in dance teachers cross training. Dance teachers have a difficult time maintaining their body’s health so that they can remain fit for the entirety of their career. One would think that since dance teachers have to be on their feet and moving throughout their workday that they should be in excellent health, but this is far from the truth. Dance teachers just like others have postural problems, misalignments, and neuromuscular patterning and need to train their bodies to correct these issues. Pilates is the training solution for dance teachers.
Hyperlordosis is an exaggerated curve in the lumbar spine in which the lower back curves inwards more than it would naturally do. The spine needs a natural curve to function correctly due to the shape of its individual bones (vertebrae), but too pronounced a curve places stress on other parts of the spine and can cause pain. By strengthening the spine and abdominals and stretching the spine and hamstrings, the spinal curvature can be normalized or reduced. Consistent, weekly Pilates programs have proven to be effective, as explained in this case study.
This paper deals with the creation of a Pilates rehabilitation program for a male footballer who had anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. It begins with an anatomical study of the knee, including its biomechanical movements, and a study of the ligaments and their function. That is followed by a description of the surgical procedure and the treatment that preceded and followed the surgery. A post-surgery posture assessment aided in the setting of short- and mid-term goals and, once those were set, the program was constructed. The decisions for the progression of the work were based on observation and communication with the client.
This paper illustrates how sound therapy, begun in a timely manner, can benefit both the outcome of surgery and post-surgery recovery. The user case discussed in this paper is that of Maria, a very dedicated teacher and an athletic person, who was confronted by the rupture of her Anterior Cruciate Ligament in her left knee. Maria was able to progress from simple floor exercises to more advanced and difficult repertoire on the Pilates apparatus. Eventually, she regained full use of her leg and returned to her regular activities.
Surfing is a dynamic sport which places many demands on the body. Muscle and joint injuries can be linked to carrying bulky surfboards, prone and knee paddling, and the postures related to actual wave riding. This research focuses specifically on prone paddling and the stress it puts on the shoulders. Most traditional strength exercises pay little attention to the intrinsic musculature that stabilize the shoulder and scapula and externally rotate the arm - which is exactly what surfers need most for their shoulders.
The contribution of the Transverse Abdominus (TA), Internal Obliques (IO), External Obliques (EO), Pelvic Floor (PF), and Multifidus muscles to spinal stability (particularly lumbopelvic stability) has been well established. This paper discusses the TA, IO, EO, PF, and DM muscles, with particular focus on the DM muscles, and how Pilates can specifically address weakness, improve strength, and improve function.
Many people experience foot pain, whether from shoes that are too small or incorrect biomechanics of the feet or any of the myriad other causes. Plantar Fasciitis, the most common cause of pain on the bottom of the heel, according to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, occurs when the strong band of tissue that supports the arch of the foot becomes irritated and inflamed. Whole-body Pilates for correct alignment and improved balance and focussed foot exercises could go a long way towards alleviating the pain of plantar fasciitis and possibly avoiding surgery.
While working at the Weill Cornell Medical School’s Iris Cantor Women’s Health Center , I met many post-mastectomy patients suffering from shoulder strains and other symptoms, including extreme tightness, pain, and very little range of motion in the shoulder girdle. Virtually all speak of decreased pain, increased range of motion, increased strength and a better quality of life after physical therapy. But without a continued program of mobilizing and strengthening the effected tissues, the symptoms are liable to return. Pilates is an excellent way for post-mastectomy patients to maintain a healthy and balanced body.
Rheumatoid Arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints and/or other internal organs. While the disease has a negative influence on fitness, sufferers from the condition can benefit from managed exercise. This paper discusses exercise recommendation for people with Rheumatoid Arthritis.